| 
  • If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • You already know Dokkio is an AI-powered assistant to organize & manage your digital files & messages. Very soon, Dokkio will support Outlook as well as One Drive. Check it out today!

View
 

B2 1980s Majask

Page history last edited by coreyL 14 years ago

Carly Martin, Stephanie Mao, Corey Loeb, Remneeka Bhooi

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

The 1980s

 

             

                                                         

                    

 

Business & the Economy by Carly Martin

     The 1980s was a time of great economic change for the better, especially towards the end of the decade.  By the end of the 1970s, the economy was failing and inflation rates were high.  During the first couple years of the 1980s, the economy still had not improved by a significant amount.  The United States' economy from 1972 to 1981 was the worst that it had been since the Great Depression; economic growth had stunted and the real gross national product had barely increased from 1980 to 1981.  However, in that same time period, inflation had dropped by around five percent, a sign that the country was going through economic upswing.  More contributers to the improving economy were “Government spending, mergers, and speculation” (“America” 3).  The economic upturn did not come without its fair share of difficulty for some people, though.  Unlike the rest of the 1900s, where the middle class was prosperous, in the 1980s the upper class broke away from the others, economically.  The top 20% (the richest sector) benefited the most from the economic growth. The middle and lower classes were much worse off economically than the upper class because there were little to no changes in wages (which the middle and lower classes depended on) due to the lack of education and training that popular types of jobs required, and the government did nothing to help.  Also, some policies that were created to help the economy came at a cost to a part of the population, though these costs were short-term; only until the old policies transitioned into new ones.

     Businesses also contributed to the growth of the economy in the 1980s.  In order to decrease the inflation rate and improve the economy, there was a larger emphasis on private investors and business firms rather than government spending.  Some major businesses that experienced large growth were those of television networks and computers, just to name a couple.  New television networks emerged, such as TNT and CNN, both created by Ted Turner.  In 1986, Rupert Murdoch helped to create the television station Fox.  Thus, CBS, NBC, and ABC (the "big three") no longer were the dominating forces in television and their profits decreased.  Also, AT&T broke up which led to the creation of "long-distance telephone carriers such as Sprint and MCI" ("The" 4).  The use and purchase of personal computers also grew significantly in the 1980s.  The personal computer was first introduced by Apple in 1970, but during the 1980s the demand for and production of these computers drastically increased.  International Business Machines (IBM) had dominated the computer industry in the 1960s but when the market began to increase in the '80s IBM was slow to join in.  However, upon entering the market, IBM took control and dominated quickly, but temporarily.  IBM began to lose market share and by the late 1980s was in economic turmoil.

     In conclusion, the economy of the 1980s started out badly but by the end of the decade into the beginning of the 1990s the United States' economy improved drastically although the upper class may have benefited more than the lower classes.

 

Education by Remneeka Bhooi

 

       The focus of teens and adults was mainly obtaining a decent job rather than focusing on school to receive a well-paid job with more benefits. Because of this lack of focus, Scholastic Aptitude Tests’ (SAT) scores were much lower than the government expected. Thus the teaching requirements increased and there were stricter requirements when entering college and the education for students became more intense and the teachers and professors were offered more money and, as a result, they taught at a higher level of comprehension. US became more concerned in educating the people because of the low overall SAT scores, education became more of a priority than before. The US became more concerned with providing education to children because of their generally low scores in comparison to other countries in Asia.

 

          

        Desegregation was enforced in multiple school districts. Because of many of the Caucasians’ views against desegregation much more racial discrimination was present in the company of other races other than Caucasians, especially in teachers and who the colleges’ accepted, considering race. As education became a priority for most families and more people enrolled in schools, technology became a necessity and supplies became vaster due to the increase of knowledge schools required the students to learn. These supplies included textbooks, computers, and chalkboards which were most of the time provided.

 

 

Fashion by Stephanie Mao

     By the start of the 1980s, Americans wanted a sense of security and success that was not present in previous decades. However, the Reagan administration not only brought that sense of security, but also an excuse for Americans to spend large amounts of money on fashion, whereas before, they could not.  Also, the rise of the baby boomers led to many people joining the corporate work force.  Because of this change, styles changed from the hippie movement in the 1970s to the yuppie movement in the 1980s.  The yuppie, short for young urban professional, was the exact opposite of the hippie.  While the hippie emphasized free and liberal thinking, the yuppie reflected the rise of capitalism and materialistic success.  Also, they represented a decade that was very conscious of wealth and social status.  People wore conservative business suits, coined "power suits", made of wool or cotton instead of the popular polyester suits and wide ties found in the 70s.  Additionally, Rolex watches, Sony Walkmans, cell phones and leather briefcases were important in the yuppie wardrobe.  By the late 1980s, some women even wore pants or curvier dresses instead of the common pencil skirt they wore before.

 

      Along with the yuppie movement, professional styles were also found outside the workforce.  The casual professional look was called "preppy" and most commonly associated with elite private schools and "wealthy" sports, such as tennis or sailing.  People wore tan khakis, polo shirts, plaid or striped cable-knit sweaters, and penny loafers.  Designers such as Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein and Lacoste grew popular, because their insignias were displayed as the symbols of preppy style.

      Contrary to the high-fashion styles of the working middle and high class, others gained inspiration from the British punk movement of the 1970s, black urban culture and pop musicians.  They often wore secondhand clothes, deliberately ripped T-shirts and jeans, leather and piercings.  This style was called "street fashion" and was most common among young people aged 25 or under.  By the end of the 1980s, yuppie and street styles combined.  It was not unusual to see a woman with several piercings holding an expensive leather bag, or wearing ripped jeans and a preppy blazer.  Also from the punk movement, a youth subculture called "goth" formed.  These people often became goths because they felt ostracized from mainstream society and drew their inspiration from nineteenth century gothic novels, such as Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.  In retaliation to the rejection and ridicule they faced, they dyed their hair black, and wore black clothing and dark makeup, which contrasted against their pale skin.  These goths embraced tolerance, free-thinking and rebelling against the status quo.

 

 

 

Film & Theater by Remneeka Bhooi

 

           Many science fiction movies were released in the 1980s to emphasize certain special effects used. These movies included E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial (1982) that used the effects of outer space to further emphasize the purpose of the film. Shortly after the other sci-fi movies were released, these included two of the Star Wars (1980-1983) sequels, four of the Star Treksequels, The Terminator (1984), and Robocop (1987), except these films included more violence and more of a wider range of superficial ideas.

 

         

 

            Several movies of war were released at this time, ranging from serious to completely untrue to benefit the audience. One of the less frightening and slightly amusing films was Top Gun (1986). This film tempted audience to join the war, although the war was not even close to what this film illustrated. Film industries created these films to illustrate the reality of war to better conceive the war in a more settled manner.

            Along with these war movies many horror movies were released and these mainly focused on the women and their achievements but these movies criticized the contributions females made to society and it was clear that women were not greatly treated, and the relevance to society was clear. These horror films included Friday the 13th (1980) and its continuation Nightmare on Elm Street (1984).

             

 

            In the same decade many comedies were released by Hollywood to illustrate not only physical absurdity but also to lighten Hollywood’s dark image it held due to its many war movies released. These comedies were simply a play on words and misconceptions used to emphasize insensible conclusions to the audience and including Airplane! (1980), Caddyshack(1980), Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982), and Naked Gun (1988).

            Theatres were big productions of Broadway in New York that included limited live performances by many unbelievably talented actors and actresses, these productions became instantly popular due to the limited number of performances and the value the performers held. These productions lived up to their expectations and they just kept improving and these included Les Miserables (1987) and continuously famous The Phantom of the Opera (1988). The 1980s was a time in which many popular stars returned to stage to continue their performances or to do their finale best performance.

 

              

 

 

Food &  Drink by Corey Loeb

The 1980s was a decade of new innovations and change. Women started to join the workforce, and as a result there was a drastic shift in eating habits. Thanks to the start of cooking channels and TV chefs, the remaining housewives became more adventurous, expanding their spice racks mimicking popular television chefs like Madhur Jaffrey. People of the 80’s became more health conscious, pasta which is low fat and high in carbohydrates, became a huge fad. The birth of the microwave, created an era of TV dinners and meals ready in minutes, embracing a lazier America, and a new aspect of living.

            To supply the population with their new microwaveable meals, a chain of superstores began to erupt, with the expanding economy, money was dispensable and food was now offered in bulk. Small town shops often went out of business, a hostile takeover by the food management corporations. The 1980’s was also a time of sandwiches and fast food, name brand chains like McDonalds and Taco Bell, began to appear not just  in America but all over the world. Although a previous existing enterprise, McDonalds was a small family owned restaurant. Up until the 60’s when the trademarked clown (Ronald McDonald) became an American symbol. But it was not until the 1980’s when the brand became world wide phenomena.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Print Culture by Carly Martin

In the 1980s, many new mediums of print emerged, such as new newspaper and comics.  The four most prominent and new forms of print culture were the newspaper USA Today, the Far Side comic strip, Sassy magazine, and web Zines.

     USA Today first emerged in 1982, and went national in 1983.  The paper was criticized by the rest of the newspaper industry because its articles were brief and failed to go too in-depth.  Also, stories about celebrities and popular culture seemed to be more important than hard-hitting news stories.  As an example of this, in the first issue, the death of Princess Grace of Monaco was on the first page of the paper, while the assassination of the Lebanese president-elect and Spanish plane crash with fifty-five deaths only had minor articles.  As time went on, however, the newspaper gained and continues to gain credibility and popularity.

       Gary Larson created the Far Side comic strips in 1981 and kept working on them until 1985.  The comics made fun of and mocked human nature using strange images and situations.  The comics gained fast popularity (with almost a million fans) and were transformed into mugs, t-shirts, posters, and almost every other kind of merchandise.

     Sassy magazine was another type of popular print culture in the '80s.  The magazine, aimed toward teenage girls, was first published in 1988.  It focused on different issues than other current teen magazines, in that it featured stories about thoughtful and controversial topics rather than the usual topics of weight loss, makeup, and pop music.  Due to this, It was protested by many right-wing groups and advertisement companies who “demanded [it] print less controversial articles” (Gianoulis 1).  Also, Readers felt open to share their thoughts as if they were talking to a friend because the magazine only printed the reader's first name.  Although the magazine went out of print in the 1990s, it still is loved today by many women.

     Finally, Zines gained popularity as personal computers became more common and widely used.  Zines were a way for young people to communicate and express their views with each other and not be overruled by adults in society.  They were written on computers, and nowadays would be known as blogs, which demonstrates the heavy impact with which Zines hit the United States.

 

Sports &  Games by Carly Martin

     Until the 1980s, the 1920s was considered the "Golden Age of Sport" but during the late twentieth century decade the money and popularity associated with sports skyrocketed.  Professional athletes had begun to be paid so much money that it annoyed the fans. A large part of the sports business was that of television broadcasting from commercials to the broadcasting of games. But sports not only gained popularity by television, but by golf courses, health clubs, tennis courts, and even companies' sponsorship of sports games, teams, and individual athletes.  The largely popular sports world also caused an increase in sports-related jobs, such as those in sports medicine and sports law.  By the end of the decade, the sports business was making $50 billion yearly.

     However, not everything about the newly popular sports industry was beneficial; there were many scandals that professional and college athletics were involved with.  These included anabolic steriod use, illegal drugs, athletes being paid illegally, and gambling, among many other scandals.  Also, although women had made great strides in sports and more and more women each year played sports, there was still an obvious gender inequality.  Men still dominated the industry and the traditional mindset that men are more athletic than women was still followed.  In terms of race, there was still a large barrier between the races in sports, although it had been partially broken down.  Latinos and African-Americans were able to play alongside whites, but they were usually put at less crucial positions on the field, were payed less, and suffered the same racial stereotypes that had gone on for years.  However, some athletes such as Michael Jordan and Magic Johnson encountered fame and popularity despite the color of their skin.  On the contrary, during this time, Wayne Gretzky, a brilliant and celebrated hockey player, emerged.  While a player, he was able to hold sixty one National Hockey League records.  But Gretzky is a white male, so he fit the category for celebrated players perfectly.

     During the 1980s, as well, emerged several different games, which are still played today.  These are Pac-Man, Trivial Pursuit, and the Rubik's Cube.  The World Wrestling Federation also took the world by storm in the '80s.

 

Music by Stephanie Mao

      Music in the 1980s was heavily influenced by the television channel, Music Television or MTV for short.  Going on air in 1981, MTV brought a constant, twenty-four hours a day stream of popular music videos to the American public.  This exposure led to the fame of several artists, such as Madonna, Michael Jackson and Duran Duran.  MTV also made the music video an essential part of selling a hit song, as well as bring rap music to the music scene.  Before the mid-1980s, rap or hip-hop music was an urban underground movement started in the late 1970s.  However, after the band Run-DMC released its first album in 1982, rap music had a much larger following.  Soon other rappers, such as LL Cool J and Salt-N-Pepa, rose to popularity.  As stated previously, Michael Jackson was one of the most well-known musicians during this decade.  With hit songs such as "Thriller", "Billie Jean" and "Beat It", he soon became one of the richest performers in America.  He also developed unique dance styles and brought MTV more popularity.  Other music sensations during the 1980s included Madonna, whose song "Material Girl" caused preteen girls around the country to look up to her and mimic her style and Whitney Houston, who had seven consecutive number-one hits.  Some of the most popular songs during this decade was "Born in the U.S.A." by Bruce Springsteen (left).  It was so popular that it became an unofficial national anthem.  Also, the song "Call Me" by Blondie (right) was declared the number one hit of the decade by Billboard Top 40. 

YouTube plugin error YouTube plugin error

 

     Aside from pop and hip-hop, rock and heavy metal bands stepped onto the music scene and were displayed frequently on MTV.  Such bands include Iron Maiden, Def Leppard and Judas Priest, among others.  They received heavy criticism, but their fans outnumbered them, because this type of music pushed the boundaries of music and spoke to human emotions.  The grunge movement was started in the late 1980s and would grow in popularity in the 1990s.  It was a combination of heavy metal, punk and old-fashioned rock-and-roll, heavily influenced by the Seattle sound and the band Nirvana.

     As far as technological advances, the compact disk, commonly known as the CD, replaced vinyl records in 1983, making it easier for people to carry and transport.  The CD also could hold more songs than a vinyl record.  It soon dominated music technology by the end of the 1980s. 

 

 

 

 

 

"The Way We Lived" by Corey Loeb

 

Fliqz has shut down their service. To access this video, email support with this video id: f07f9c7ae2c6435cb7d0e89d084eac2d

 

Government & Politics by Corey Loeb

 

     In terms of American politics the 1980’s was well known as the decade of Ronald Reagan. Beginning his term in 1980, Reagan had a vision, which eventually shaped up both political and economical stature for the United States. At the start of the 80’s the American public had to embrace the idea of living as a non world power. Horribly embarrassed by the earlier 1970’s, Nixon’s Watergate scandal, along with secret FBI bribes against political leaders, and statistics on teen pregnancy, drug abuse, and violence, at an all time high. The nation was disgraced, and this created opportunities for other world powers (mostly Japan and Germany) to challenge the American authority on world trade. To make matters worse the economic standpoint of the U.S. was suffering a great deal, and exhibiting all signs of high inflation. Before Reagan stepped into office the Countries security, became a huge issue. Political terrorism embraced the United States, and became a national threat to security, after the Vietnam War. With a nation in such a desolate state, Reagan’s optimistic policies and economic solutions overshadowed typical democrats if the past. A group emerged called the “Reagan Democrats” the foundation of which consisted of blue-collar  workers. Reagan won in a landslide against Republican Jimmy Carter, with his vows to restore American prestige, and to once again restore power to United States Foreign Policy.   

            The cold war had dominated global Politics since the end of World War Two, and had a massive impact on the 1980’s and the people that lived during this era. Causing nationwide panic at times and keeping the United States always on its toes, just waiting for the Soviet Union to make a move. However in 1985 tensions between the two superpowers were eased, as real progress in the field of arms controls were made. With the withdrawal of soviet troops in Eastern Europe creating a huge impact on world politics, and by 1989, every communist government in Eastern Europe had been destroyed and replaced with a new Democratic system, which mimicked the United States.

            For all American decades a political scandal always manages to erupt, and Reagan’s reign was no exception. In 1986 the Iran-Contra scandal surfaced. The Iran-Contra scandal consisted of members of the administration illegally selling weapons and arms to Iran in exchange for the Iranians promise to help secure the safety of Americans held hostage in Beirut by the Shiite radicals. The scandal grew deeper to reveal the money made from the weapons sales was given to Contra rebels in Nicaragua. Going against prohibitions of such support. The Iran-Contra scandal abruptly damaged Reagan’s reputation and destabilized the effectiveness of his administration. Despite all the scandals and rumors against him, Reagan was responsible for bringing back the United States world power reputation. He significantly helped decrease inflation, and contributed greatly to the rise of the economy. Though less conservative then his campaign had promised, Reagan created positive Foreign Policy agendas. Throughout his eight year term during the 1980’s he was an excellent president and will be remembered by the legacy he left behind on the American Politics and Government.

 

 

 

Leadership by Remneeka Bhooi

 

                                                          

 

                In the previous decade before the 1980s, politics and the terms concerning the rights of women were great areas of focus. In the 1980s the focus of this decade was more on peace and desegregation due to the rising conflict between African Americans and Caucasians. Ronald Reagan was a momentous leader in the United States history of leaders from 1980 to 1989. Reagan was a persuasive speaker in his time; he began as a Democrat and changed into a Republican. He defeated the Democratic Party in 1967 and won the place as a governor and was strong in his decisions and clearly contributed greatly to society, he was acknowledged for the results of his actions.

                When Reagan ran for presidency in the 1980s, he won the upper hand in the Republican Party and secured his role as president with George W. Bush as vice president beside him. In the beginning of Reagan’s presidency he cut down taxes and tried to increase the economic growth but instead, the consequences of his actions were devastating because of the increase in US’s debt. Towards the end of Reagan’s presidency he assigned more than half of the federal judges and four Supreme Court justices, a big impact considering the improvements of the 1980s.

                Reagan will be remembered for his advancement regarding the social policies between eastern continents and the effect of his foreign policies. He also significantly improved the military forces in terms of equipment and progression of techniques and the soldiers. Although many of Reagan’s goals of increase economic growth and stability of the federal government, he was remembered for his techniques in campaigning and his improvements in address many of the concerns of the government which created many more progressions in the US in terms of the expectations from the president. 

 

Law &  Justice by Carly Martin

     The Reagan administration generally had conservative views: anti-abortion, did not do much to help civil rights, and much more.  So it came as a shock to everyone who thought that the Supreme Court would soon be filled with ultra-conservatives when Reagan appointed the first female to the Supreme Court.  The justices Reagan appointed seemed to be fair and listened to both sides of an argument before making a decision.  Along with this fair decision-making came new laws, such as the one that stated that if police acquired evidence illegally it could still be used as evidence against a suspect because it would have been discovered in time.

     During the 1980s, as well, there was a new focus on serial killers and mass murderers, such as Ted Bundy (who was put in the electric chair in 1989) and John Wayne Gacy (who was found guily of homicide in 1980).  It was in this decade that the country became aware of just how dangerous and large of a problem these were.  The number of white collar crimes and crimes due to greed also increased during this time.  Gang violence and warfare and prison population grew to all-time highs.  In response to this increase in violence, the Supreme Court enacted laws that made it easier to capture and convict a suspected criminal.  The television shows Cops and America's Most Wanted were created to steer people in the opposite direction of crime, and to show how crime was fought.  There were many campaigns for children and adults alike that tried to counter violence and drug use, such as DARE.  By the end of the 1980s, though crime still happened, a massive decrease in crime helped the country to try and recover.

YouTube plugin error

 

Religion

     During the 1980s, several religious groups tried to re-establish themselves after the religious instability of the 1960s and 70s.  Out of these attempts, a distinct conflict between liberalism and conservatism emerged.  Protestantism was the dominant religion in the United States, accounting for more than 55 percent of the population.  Protestant beliefs generally varied depending on the segment of the religion.  For example, Baptists were the most conservative and active Protestants, while Methodists held more moderate and liberal positions on social and political issues.  However, the sudden growth of the conservative and traditional opinions of the Evangelicals threatened the membership of the Protestants.  By the end of the 1980s, there were approximately 40 million to 60 million evangelicals in the United States.

     The viewpoints of Catholicism also changed during this decade.  When Pope John Paul II came into power in 1978, he pushed a strong, conservative belief on Catholics around the world.  Some of the changes included no ordinations of female priests, no uses of abortion, and no marriage in the church after a divorce.  His beliefs upset a large majority of the individualistic American Catholics, who labeled the Pope's principals too conservative.  Nonetheless, membership in the Catholic Church increased by 16 percent in the United States, particularly in the Hispanic community whose population increased on the West Coast and in urban areas.

     Finally, Jewish demographics changed drastically in the 1980s.  While they used to live in the Northeast United States, many left for new opportunities and experiences to the Midwest and Southwest.  They were one of the wealthiest American groups and also one of the most educated.  They published several periodicals and newspapers, taking various sides on political issues, especially the United States' treatment of Israel. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

Positive Political Cartoon

This cartoon shows Ronald Reagan pushing a giant cardboard cutout of himself to stand up.  Although some may think this demonstrates vanity, it also illustrates how even through criticism and corruption Reagan was able to uphold his image and still be admired by the country.

 

Negative Political Cartoon

 

The U.S. invasion of Grenada was a controversial and widely criticized issue.  In this cartoon, Ronald Reagan is shown as a conqueror, but in a bad light because of the statues he is next to.  Also, the words on the side of his statue say "insert 25 cents and watch the fast draw" meaning that Reagan was quick to invade when he had no real right to.

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

            World War Two heavily influenced the 1980s and also the way its political leaders ran the United States. Also known as the Reagan decade, the eighties was a time of economic expansion, and massive movements for peace throughout all corners of the world.  World War Two had provided a cautionary tale for future generations, and after the tragic losses in Vietnam, Reagan’s campaign was based on the foundation of peace and security for the nation. Another positive effect World War Two had on 1980s' leaders was the new request for foreign policies. The war created a panic and after Germany became a world power once again shortly after the war, Reagan complied with his country’s demand. He expanded the United States' economy and spread prosperity amongst the wealthy and middle class, to once again obtain the United States reputation as a world power. The post World War Two was reflected throughout the 1980s and especially affected the countries leaders, and how Reagan ran the United States.

     Along with World War Two, the changes in culture influenced the everyday lifestyles and roles of Americans.  The yuppie style of professional success reflected a society in which capitalism and materialism thrived.  Also, as more women joined the corporate workforce, they were able to support their families and could not stay home and take care of the kids all the time.  This led to a decreased number of children per couple as people were more focused on their work.  With less time to cook, the microwave was invented in 1980s, making meals ready in minutes and creating a lazier America.  Contrary to previous decades where fast food was prominent, people were more health-conscious during the 1980s, decreasing the nation's risk for high cholesterol and other fatal health risks.  However, fast food joints became popular as well.  Superstores also rose to popularity during the 1980s to supply the public with microwaveable meals, often selling it cheaper and in larger quantities than smaller family shops.  This new way of life led to an easy way of accessing food and other necessities.  Finally, special effects were seen in both films and music to emphasize advancements in technology.  Science fiction movies in the 1980s were popular because of their special effects, and music videos shown on MTV displayed an innovative America.

        Along with the cultural aspects of America, sports were a new occupation for many American citizens, a new way for Americans to distract themselves from the hardships of work. The most popular sports were baseball, football, and hockey which allowed men to become well-known in the country and shape the country as we know it today. Sports helped the community to grow stronger because as there were more hobbies and jobs available ideas started to form of the many ways the US can improve due to the contributions of sports. In the 21st century one can observe the past changes the US has benefited from, because if not for the push of better education by parents and government, there would not be the excellent schools students are privileged to attend. If not for the wonderful qualities Reagan had demonstrated, the US would not be that strong of a nation as it is today. Lastly, if not for the improvements in technology ad other necessities, the 21st would not be in the well-off condition as it is today. 

     In conclusion,  the world after World War Two came with its fair share of technological and political advancements.  It was difficult to believe that the world would not only recover from WWII but prosper, as well, but the 1980s demonstrated that this was not only attainable, it was happening.  Although recovery was a long process and did not come without its fair share of costs to the nation as a whole and certain groups of people, it was more than worth it to see the nation thrive once again.

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

"1980s: Music." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1135-1136. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 June 2010.

 

"1980s: Film and Theater." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-CenturyAmerica. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: U*X*L, 2002. 1119-1120. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 June 2010.

 

“1980s: The Way We Lived." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1197-1198. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 June 2010.

 

"America in the Global Economy." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 June 2010.

 

"Cardboard Ronald Reagan." Herblock's History. Web. 15 Jun 2010. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/presidents.html>.

 

Edelman, Rob. "Gretzky, Wayne (1961–)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1166-1167. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 June 2010.

 

Edelman, Rob. "USA Today." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1160-1162. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 June 2010.

 

"Food Standards Agency - Eat Well, Be Well - 1980s." Food Standards Agency - Eat Well, Be Well - Eatwell. Web. 15 June 2010. <http://www.eatwell.gov.uk/healthydiet/seasonsandcelebrations/howweusedtoeat/1980s/?view=textonly>.

  

Gianoulis, Tina. "Goth Culture." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1114-1115. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 June 2010.

 

Gianoulis, Tina. "Sassy." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1159-1160. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 June 2010.

 

Gianoulis, Tina. "Zines." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1162-1164. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 June 2010.

 

Gustainis, Justin. "The Far Side." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1157-1159. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 June 2010.

 

"Hero of Grenada." simontcartoons.com. Web. 15 Jun 2010. <http://www.simontcartoons.com/>.

 

"Overview."American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: Gale, 2001.Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 June 2010.

 

Price, Shannon Bell. "Grunge." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 153-155. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 June 2010. 

 

"Reagan, Ronald."International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 7. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 88-89.Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 June 2010.

 

"Serial Killers and Mass Murderers." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 June 2010.

 

 "Silicon Valley: The Computer Revolutionizes America." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 June 2010.

 

"The 1980s: Fashion: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 June 2010.

 

"The 1980s: Government and Politics: Overview." Novelguide: Free Study Guides, Free Book Summaries, Free Book Notes, & More. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/adec_0001_0009_0/adec_0001_0009_0_03054.html>.

 

"The 1980s: Law and Justice: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 June 2010. 

 

"The 1980s: Religion: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 June 2010. 

 

"The 1980s: Sports: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 June 2010.

 

"The Economy in Transition." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 9: 1980-1989. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 June 2010.

 

 

 

             

 

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.