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B2 1950s Gallagher

Page history last edited by Safiya Syed 10 years, 1 month ago





MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America? 




Business & the Economy


     The 1950s were an economic peak. In 1954, taxes paid for a lot of nuclear weapons, and although expensive, they actually cost less in total than that of the conventional weapons. Also in 1954, congress passed and act extending the outreach of social security. It reached 10 million more Americans. In 1956, Eisenhower raised the minimum wage from $.75 to $1. He worked more nationally than domestically. He secured the New Deal programs that were created by President Delano Roosevelt, as well as extend them. The programs could be manipulated by currency or rates to make sure there is are favorable economic trends.


                Transportation was improved immensely. The St. Lawrence Sea Way (links the Great lakes to the Atlantic Ocean) was built under Eisenhower’s ]

presidency, as well as new highways and airports. The improvements lead to a decline in railroads, but an increase in air, road, and shipping. There was a sharp decline in 1958, but other than this, the economy prospered.

                Oil also plays a big role in the 1950s. Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddeq, the prime minister of Iran, seized land from British oil companies and called it property of the Iranian nation. He was being overthrown by supporters of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Eisenhower decided to aid Shah because he knows that oil is one of the most strategic resources, and he wants Western powers to have access. The Shah were basically used by Britain and the U.S. They all became rich, but they only made money when it suited the Western Oil companies.




     Education in the 1950’s underwent dramatic and shattering changes.  Until 1954 “separate but equal” was what people knew the schooling system to be based off of. This official policy stated that though white and black children would be separated in school, they would have the same opportunities in life. In 1954 however, Chief Justice Earl Warren and other members of the Supreme Court felt that separate facilities for blacks did not make those facilities equal to those the whites had, according to the constitution. They stated their opinions in the Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Many White people didn't agree with this new idea of having African American and white kids in the same school. There were many protesters who felt that having African American and White kids in the same school would be too big of a change. They felt that it would ruin the way life was for many. In 1957 Elizabeth Eckford was the first black teenager to enter the all white Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Though integration took place in most towns, the country was still rather split on the topic. 





 Little Rock Nine Central High School






Men's Fashion

 In the beginning of the 1950s, men’s fashion consisted of gray flannel, blue pinstripe, and tweed suits. As the decade progressed, Americans witnessed the change in men’s fashion. Colored dress shirts, bright plaid sports jackets, and Bermuda shorts became popular. Synthetic materials also became popular

because it was easier to wash them than cotton.


Women's Fashion

Women wanted to be tall and curvy and the hourglass figure was very popular. Most of the clothing women wore enhanced their figure. The chemise, otherwise known as the sack dress, was introduced in the 1950s. It resembled a bag and was very conservative because it did not enhance the hips and bust. Because of this it wasn’t popular for too long.


Day Attire

  Many women stopped working in factories and started working at home in the 1950s. Clothing became very feminine. House-wives wore clothing that was comfortable. Most women wore voluminous skirts and pearls when they were at home. Shirtwaist dresses and hooded dresses made of hip-clinging knit became popular.


Work Attire

The few women who did work, wore suits made of wool, slim skirts, short jackets, and silk blouses. Suits were always accompanied by gloves.


 Night Attire

 Night attire consisted of clingy, sequined gowns. Evening gowns were tight, sleeveless and strapless. Many of the them had deep necklines. The dresses were usually made from materials such as silk and taffeta. They were full-skirted and romantic. The normal lenght for dresses in the 1950s, was down to the midcalf.


Accesories, Hair, and Makeup 

 Hats, fur, capes, handbags, and satin pumps are examples of the accessories popular in the 1950s. Hair was usually short and pinned back, off the face. Some women dyed their hair to match their clothes. Arched eyebrows and dark lips also became popular. Most women used makeup and red lipstick was the most popular.



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Film and theater 


  •  Overview      


     The film industry in the 1950's was greatly influenced by the introduction of the Television [TV]. As the number of households with a television increased, the more Americans stayed at home, not attending the cinema or movie theater. In addition to the drop in ticket sales, a new problem faced the movie industry. In the year of 1948, the Supreme Court ruled that all major studios would sell off their movie holdings [the movies they display, and how often they display them] to the government. This impacted the economic side of the film industry because the major theaters could not compete with other theaters by showing certain movies that they believe would increase their ticket sales and revenue. This competition of theaters was usually noted as the "studio system".


     Movie studios now faced harder and greater competition. They responded to the competition by creating fewer movies of higher quality. A new style of competition evolved within the industry, which theater could create the most modern and technology-adavanced films. In 1954, the seven major studios made less than 100 movies the whole year, which was a large drop from the 320 movies per year in the late 1940s. To increase ticket sales and ratings, movies pushed the moral limits, by choosing dramatic, daring storylines, enhancing the settings, and adding a numerous, colorful cast. 


  • Popular|Controversial Movies 


          - North by Northwest (1959)

               A new theme in movies that is still used today emerged from this suspense, adventure film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. The   

               popular theme was undercover spies, it brought a new style of excitement to the film industry. 


          - Some Like it Hot (1959)

               This scandalous, humorous film starred the popular Marilyn Monroe. The film is a prime example of "pushing the limits".   

               The naughty nature of the film sure paid off in the end, since it gathered an Oscar, 10 other nominations and 8 other wins.  


          - Godzilla (1954)  

               This monster-movie from Japan was a humongous hit in America. Godzilla achieved a crazy, gigantic fan base, which

               supported the film so much that it continued to create three sequels, a fourth one to be released in 2012. This film was also a

               contributor in the rise of science fiction films during the 1950s.


  • Famous Actors and Actresses


        - Marilyn Monroe [1926-1962]

               The 1950s were frequently named as "Monroe's decade". Through this decade, Monroe gained most of her popularity in films

               like Bus Stop (1956), Some Like It Hot (1959), Niagara (1953), Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), and The Seven-Year  

               Itch (1955). Marilyn Monroe through every movie created a new image, the "dumb blonde". Her platinum blonde hair,

               hourglass shape, and breathy voice, distinguished her from many others.


          - Cary Grant [1904-1986]

               This American-British actor with a mid-Atlantic accent was the foremost example of the heroic, leading man in films. Grant

               was known for being the brave, courgaeous and handsome man who saved a tgirl from danger, and then the girl and him   

               embark in a romantic rendevous. North by Northwest was one his most dramatic, popular roles in a film.


           Elizabeth Taylor [1932-]

               A similar, but brunette version, of Marilyn Monroe. She was known for her extreme beauty, hollywood lifestyle, and multiple

               marriages. She was the star in 1950's "The Father of the Bride".




  • Other Popular Films, Actors, and Actresses

               - The Robe (1953)

               - The Ten Commandments (1956)

               - The Buccaneer (1958)

               - Singin’ in the Rain (1952)

               - Ben-Hur (1959)

               - Vertigo (1958)

               - The Searchers (1956)

               - 12 Angry Men (1957)

               - Rear Window (1954)


               - Grace Kelly [1929-1982]

               - Marlene Dietrich [1901-1992]

               - James Stewart [1908-1997]

               - Kim Novak [1933-]

               - Doris Day [1924-]

               - John Wayne [1907-1979]

               - Katherine Hepburn [1907-2003]

               - Thelma Ritter [1905-1969]

               - Deborah Kerr [1921-]






Food &  Drink


 American families had more disposable income and this allowed them to spend more money on fast food and pre-packaged meals. McDonalds was a very successful fast food chain and its popularity caused many other fast food chains to be built, including Burger King. Hamburgers, milkshakes,and fries became the staple diet of many Americans. Casseroles, meatloaf, and grilled meat was made by many Americans. The concept of barbeque caught on. Frozen vegetabes accompnaied main meals. Canned soup became a necessity. Americans also started trying ethnic foods like enchialdas, pizza, lasaigna, chow mein, and egg foo yung.





The first McDonald's commercial.  



Print Culture


Print Media was very big in the 1950s. Many new magazines and newspapers came out. Many famous books were also written in the 1950s. Media was a big way for people to sell and commercialize and many took advantage of it. Magazines were becomeing very popular during this time. The idea of having an issue every week or month was starting to grow rapidly. Businessess started using these forms of media as a way to commercialize their products.




This was a very popular magazine in the 1950s




Time came out in 1953.




This was a big newspaper in 1956.



Association Press was also a big newspaper in the 1950s. Many great books were writeen in the 1950s.

Here is the list of the top five bestsellers in the 1950s:


  1. The Cardinal, Henry Morton Robinson




 2.   Joy Street, Frances Parkinson Keyes




 3. Across the River and into the Trees, Ernest Hemingway


4. The Wall, John Hersey


5. Star Money, Kathleen Winsor


Sports &  Games


     The majority of 1950s society had leisure time, economic stability, and great general prosperity, allowing them to participate in or become a fan of athletic activities. Popular athletes ranged in many kinds and types of sports, like baseball's Jackie Robinson, to basketball's Wilt Chamberlain, to boxing's "Sugar Ray" Robinson. During the 1950s, many sports that were barely unknown by society became extremely popular, like bowling, golf, tennis, boxing, and basketball. Also many early 20th century favorites, like baseball and football, remained popular with dedicated fans who seemed to thrive on the state or college rivalries. 




       As the automatic pin setters, glossy wood oils, and ranging size balls became apparent in newly created bowling alleys, more people began to try this new sport out. Bowling was easily-accesible, a fun game for all ages, and easy to matter with. It was known as a "middle-class" sport since it was not expensive at all, and usually people of that common orgin played in bowling alleys.

     As bowling began to be televised in competitions, with special tournaments including handicap players competing and the "average-joe" versing the bowling proffesional, stars of the game began to appear. They were commonly noted as the "King and Queen of Bowling", Marion Ladewig and Don Carter, two of the best, most-popular players. Bowling became so popular on television, that ABC had a certain weekly time slot to prepare for the long, exciting program.







       In the 1950s, Golf was a game that had been growing in American country clubs. People who participated in this sport where white, and affluent, people of higher society, men and women. These wealthier people who spent hours a day touring the lush, rolling courses, usually had attendants who would hold their equiptment. These attendants would also be the workers of the courses, maintaining the grass and landscape. The workers were typically lower-class people who could not afford to play the game or make reservations.

     Although golf was a sport usually for high class generations, in the mid 1950s it began to change into an American sport. This transformation of the game of golf was called the Hogan Era. It all had to do with a man named Ben Hogan. Ben Hogan was a fiery, single-minded golf player who would use his love of the game to win and attack the golf course. He was one of the first best golf players in history, he made all of society want to watch the game. His success story was also very important to the rise of golf. He had suffered from a major car crash in 1949, ending up in the emergency room. Yet in the 1951 U.S. Open golf tournament, he stunned the crowd with a major win.








       Boxing had not changed much since the years before the 1950s. But the sport was played by lower-class African American, Italian, or Irish neighborhoods and followed by the poor and the upper class. American society viewed those in boxing as the true American sports champs. Many watch boxing for it's violent and unpredicatable results and the interesting match-ups.

     Crowd favorites included Ezzard Charles, Jersey Joe Walcott, and Joe "The Brown Bomber" Louis of boxing games. Charles and Walcott were the classic heavyweight championship fighters of the 1950s. They had their third heavyweight championship fight in 1952, with Walcott taking the crown. But as the results became more predictable, the 1950s boxing audience began to be unimpressed.




Babe Ruth and Baseball (Video)


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ROCK‘N ROLL!!!!!  Just say 1950’s and the first thing that comes into people’s minds is Rock’n Roll. It was developed from a blend of Southern Blues and Gospel Music with an added strong back beat. This type of music was very popular with teenagers. Especially with teens that were trying to break out of the mainstream and try something different.  People started playing Rock’n Roll at parties and clubs.

Some of the biggest artists of the 1950’s were Bill Haley, Elvis Presley (Elvis Pelvis), and Jerry Lee Lewis. Songs by Nat King Cole and Frank Sinatra are stilled played on the radio today.


Top Five Evis Presley Songs:    


#1 Kentucky Rain

#2 Suspicious Minds

#3 Jailhouse Rock

#4 Blue Suede Shoes

#5 Heartbreak Hotel







 http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A0geu1qHzf9L808AVYdXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTEyZTRvMmlzBHNlYwNzcgRwb3MDOQRjb2xvA2FjMgR2dGlkA0g0NjZfNzU-/SIG=120emve26/EXP=1275141895/**http%3a//www.youtube.com/watch%3fv=xTwraOFTcCw (Rock'n Roll)

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q04_ClDxRsk (Suspicious Minds)





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"The Way We Lived"

 The video below is a 1952 documentary that displays a day in life for people in a small town in America during the 1950s. 


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Statistics of the 1950s


US GDP (1998 dollars):   $294.6 billion
Federal spending:   $42.56 billion
Federal debt:   $256.9 billion
Consumer Price Index:   24.1
Unemployment:   5.9%
Cost of a first-class stamp:   $0.03

President: Harry S. Truman

Vice President: Alben W. Barkley

Population: 152,271,417
Life expectancy: 68.2 years
Homicide Rate (per 100,000): 5.3



Government & Politics

Under President Truman

     The arms race began in the 1940s. In 1949, the Soviet exploded their own nuclear bomb, which was a major threat to the U.S. President Truman feared that the U.S. would fall behind, so President Truman signed a legislation that ensured civilian control over the nuclear research. This allowed him, not the armed forces, to decide on the bombs’ use. The U.S. developed an ever more powerful type of bomb, the hydrogen bomb. The bombs were perfected and tested in 1954.

     Communism was growing in Southeast Asia. On June 25, 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea across the 38th parallel. Japan had captured Korea during WWII, and it was divided into a communist north and a pro-American south. This made Japan a vital strategic point to the U.S. In 1951, the U.S. signed a peace treaty with Japan. There was a unanimous agreement (due to the fact that the Soviet Union was not present), that UN forces should aid South Korea. The Korean allies and the few U.S. troops that were already in Korea, led by General Douglas MacArthur, had practically triumphed over Korea in about six weeks in September. This was a major miscalculation. China joined on the North Korea side and pushed the U.S. back. President Truman wanted to negotiate with China and North Korea, but MacArthur wanted to seize an opportunity to use a new plan to counterattack back. MacArthur failed to recognize Truman’s concerns of the Soviet Union Joining communist forces and entering a third world war. So, Truman replaced him with a WWII parachute commander, Matthew Ridgway. Matthew Ridgway liked to scare his staff at headquarters by wearing live grenades on his uniform, even when he was miles from combat lines. Despite his blunt behavior, he proved to be more obedient than MacArthur. MacArthur went back to the U.S. and tried to cause bad publicity for Truman by saying he was a coward for wanting permanent coexistence with communists. His influence on others was short lived due to the fact that he disobeyed orders and could have too easily caused a huge with China and Possibly Russia.

     The Korean War cause many fears to the anticommunists. In 1950, Joseph McCarthy, a junior senator from Wisconsin, supposedly possessed a list of 205 people in the government that were communists. This heightened fears about the spread of communism. When people tried to oppose this accusation, or tried to show sense of the fact that it grew out of control, they would be accused of being communist. This became known as McCarthyism. McCarthy’s credibility was far less that of his exaggerations. But sadly, this was not recognized before Truman left office, so he was viewed as a coward for “sympathizing” with the communists.

Under President Eisenhower

     There were increasing tensions between the French and Vietnamese in 1954. Eisenhower’s defense advisors suggested using airstrikes to help the French, but he refused it, and French colonialism ended. In July of the same year the French, Vietnamese, and other Asian powers formed a treaty at Geneva, Switzerland to temporarily divide it into a communist north and a south controlled by Ngo Dinh Diem. Vietnam was supposed to be unified and independent by 1956. Eisenhower was willing to aid Diem, but did not want to get directly involved.

     In September of 1954, the Tachen islands off the coast of china were being bombarded by Mao’s forces. There were Nationalist outposts there. Although the islands were strategically poor, Eisenhower made the decision to defend them because he did not want a propaganda defeat. To defend them against communism, he sent the seventh fleet to patrol the coast, which the Chinese could not match. He also threatened to use nuclear weapons if the Chinese invaded. 

     In 1955, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, in a counteraction to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It consisted of East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Many of these nations tried to revolt. Hungary expected the U.S. to come and aid them, but the Soviet Union threatened a general war. The U.S. would be to far from resources to fight such a war, and as a result of not fighting there were 30,000 victims in a revolt, and their leaders were killed.

     Meanwhile back in America, McCarthy was having his own issues still. He accused the U.S. army of containing many spies, and even told a general that he wasn’t fit to wear his uniform. On April 1954, He aired his accusations on television. Most Americans were shocked to see him bullying, shouting and behaving rudely to members of the military force. Eisenhower supported he army and they came out of the hearing alright. After this, McCarthy was reprimanded by the Senate.

     In October of 1957, the Soviets were the first to launch a satellite, the Sputnik. Due to sets backs, America didn’t launch a satellite until 1958, Explorer 1. In the same year NASA was created. The soviets had a head start in space engineering. In 1959, the Soviets intentionally crashed the Lunik in the sea of tranquility on the moon, making it the first terrestrial object to get to the moon.  




President Harry Truman (left), President Dwight Eisenhower (right)


    President Harry Truman was in office for two terms (1945-1953).  President Dwight Eisenhower was also in office for two terms (1953-1961). In 1947, President Harry Truman passed the 22nd amendment, which stated that no president after him could serve more than two terms. During Eisenhower's presidency, Alaska and Hawaii were admitted in 1959 and the 23rd amendment was passed (it gave the Distict of Colombia the right to vote in national elections) Actions taken by the presidents during the 1950s are decribed in the Government & Politics, Law & Justice, and busines and economy sections.


Law &  Justice

Here are a few major examples of what went on in the courts during the 1950s:

     During Truman’s presidency, he was almost assassinated when the white house was being renovated. There were two Puerto Rican nationalists who were angry that their home was owned by the U.S. Truman was unharmed but one of his body guards was killed. One of the Puerto Ricans was killed, the other one recovered from the gun wounds. It doesn’t really matter because when he was tried in court he was sentenced to death.

     Also during his presidency, there are cases that go back to WWII. One of the most famous is Julius and Ethel. The couple was proven to have given the Soviet Union Atomic Bomb secrets during the war. They were reported by their sister-in-law. They were tried and convicted for treason, and were put to death in the electric chair in 1951.

     During the Korean War, specifically 1952, steelworkers demanded higher wages, and although the president agreed with them, he could not afford to have problems in the industry. He seized the company from the owners, and it was declared constitutional because the president claimed to use his right of emergency powers. But later it was declared unconstitutional because of the “separation of powers” and the right of emergency powers during wartime should not be used to seize private property to solve a domestic depute.

     With the spread of McCarthyism, new regulations were set as to what could and couldn’t be done about governmental views. For example, one can only be convicted of government conspiracy if there is specific evidence showing that they intend to use violence against the U.S.






After World War II, a religious uprising had started. Many Americans became highly interested in religion. In the 1950s, 63.6% of Americans belonged to a religious group. 60% of these Americans went to religious services weekly. Many churches merged together and in 1951, the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America (NCC) was formed. The NCC brought together Protestant and Orthodox churches. There were still tensions though. Some southern churches didn't want to join the northern churches because they didn't want to lose their identity. There were still some tensions between different religious groups and some of these tensions led to violence. Several Jewish structures were bombed in the south. Movies and books that had religious themes became really popular. The Robe and Quo Vadis are two examples of movies that dealt with religion. "In God we Trust" became the motto of America and was added to American currency. The Advertising Council persuaded Americans that "The family who prays together, stays together." "Under God" was also added to the Pledge of Allegiance. Religion was a part of national identity. Religion gave Americans stability.



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Negative Political Cartoon





MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?


     The 1950s was a decade full of technological innovation, economic stability, and population boom. With new inventions coming to houeholds, like the Television and Microwave, and comfortable amounts of money, people were being exposed to a whole new side of America. Events, Culture, and Leadership reflected and shaped post-WWII America for different reasons pertaining to each area. Events both reflected and formed a New America after WWII greatly due to the Cold War. Americans continued to fear the spread of communism, which lead to the development of new weapons and Pacific wars. Culture was very prosperous during the 1950s. Improved methods of maintaining a prosperous economy were used during the 1950s, which lead to a prospering country that would have more purchasing power. More people not having to worry about poverty or bankruptcy causes a rich culture to develop. Wise leadership protected America in the Cold War. The production on nuclear weapons was perfected and increased to ensure that America would not fall behind of the Soviet Union. Although there was great conflicts in Southeast Asia and areas of Europe pertaining to communism, both presidents during the 1950s made wise decisions and negotiations to prevent the spread of communism without causing a third World War.

     The culture of the 1950s past the second World War emulated the relaxation, good times, and stability of the 1950s. The mood of the people in America was reflected in their style of dress, projected films and television, diverse sports and games, and creative literature and writing. After war and worldwide issues were set to the past, people began experimenting with everything possible, whether it was films or food and drink. Technology was expanded to prevent tragedy or to just entertain the people. America was now close to being the top country in the world, with one of the highest standards of living and one of the greatest militia and technological success. As the 1950s went on, the United States did it's best to control its people and other allies from the empire of Communism. 1950s culture was particularly against the ideas and motives of the communistic peoples and government. Culture was shaped by WW2 since the war rose the spirits and patriotism of the people. It made the country feel invincible and strong, like they were a great success. Military men and women were seen as the American heroes and unity was widespread as a thought and idea through the regions of the United States. Culture had evolved with strong patriotism and an overall feeling of unity.

     Food helped reflect post World War II in America because the typical American meal was created. Hamburgers, fries, and milkshakes became the staple diet for many Americans because they were available and affordable. Fast food became a part of American life. Women used prepared foods to make meals. This made cooking a lot more easily and gave women more free time. So in post World War II America, many people had free time and this enabled them to pursue hobbies and other interests.

            The clothing of the 1950s really shows the culture of the decade. Women fashion was more feminine because women know where mostly house-wives. Also jeans were only worn at very casual occasions. This shows that women usually dressed formally. Fashion shaped America because it influenced more feminine styles.

Religion shaped America in many ways. Some of the church mergers still exist today. Also, there were many religious tensions between different religious groups. Some of these tensions became violent and many people realized that there was a problem. There are still religious tensions today, but Americans are now aware of this. In the 1950s, different churches actually overcame their differences and came together. Since the churches united, Americans also became united. Money was impacted by religion. The currency that we use today is an example of religion in politics. “Under God” was also added to the Pledge of Allegiance which American kids recite every day in school. Religion in the 1950s has helped shape the way people think and politics.

     The 1950ss brought many new ideas to the American Society. The changes in society as a whole brought new ways of thinking to the people. African Americans were starting to gain respect in society in the 1950s Education wise, African American and White kids were starting to go to school together and thus, school segregation started to lessen. This was a big step for American in the integration process. Media was a big influence on society in the 1950s. Many new magazines and newspapers came out in the 1950s and Businesses started to use these sources of media to commercialize their products. Media was also used for propaganda and political reasons. Music also shaped society and people’s way of thinking. Rock N’ Roll was huge in the 1950s. Elvis Presley came out with his new styles of music and dance. This really changed America by taking it from a very conservative type country to a more open and outgoing one. People started to let loose some of the strict policies they had within the home and thus society as a whole started to let loose.   This really opened up  opportunities for many people, but at the same time the elder generation was not quite so open to these changes.



Works Cited


"Women's Fashion: Femininity is the Key." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 6: 1950-1959. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 152-154. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 May 2010. 


"1950s: Film and Theater." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 661. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 May 2010.


"The 1950s Arts and Entertainment: Topics in the News." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 6: 1950-1959. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 8-19. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 4 June 2010


“National Council of Churches." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 6: 1950-1959. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 386-387. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 4 June 2010.


"The 1950s: Religion: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 6: 1950-1959. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 377. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.



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"The Dwight D. Eisenhower Administrations." Presidential Administration Profiles for Students. Online Edition.


"The Harry S. Truman Administrations." Presidential Administration Profiles for Students. Online Edition.









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