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B4 1990s Convery

Page history last edited by kelseeleigh263@aol.com 10 years, 4 months ago

Kelsee Jurewicz

Eric McCann

Evan Goan

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

 

  The 1990s!

 

Business & the Economy

 Business and the economy in the end of the twentieth century were very unpredictable. It could be prosperous and generous for some, but it could also be perilous and dangerous for others. This is not too far from the state we are in right now, even though we are relatively a little worse off and in the 90’s they were more on the well-off side. One of the reasons for the prosperity of this decade was the uprising of the Internet. This resulted in “a new sense of democracy and community developed” (Overview). Along with the Internet, there was also a rise in other technology during this decade. The way things were made, the things we made, and the things that the society was now demanding all helped boost the research into technology for all fields during this time. The economy was very unexpected, it shocked American economists and economists all over the world with a combination of a growth rate higher than 2.5 percent and an unemployment rate below 5 percent.  Business management, practice, and labor views all changed dramatically. Huge multibillion-dollar companies were doing exceptionally well. Surprisingly, small businesses were doing very well too. Views on racial discrimination, spirituality, gender, and management styles all changed during the 1990’s. Racial, spiritual, and gender differences were smeared out of issue and the conflict that did remain was attacked with ferocity by management.

Some important dates for business/economy during the 1990’s:

“1990:     January 10 Warner Brothers Communications and Time Inc. complete a $14.1 billion merger, establishing the largest media conglomerate in the world.

1996:     September 6 The jobless rate is reported at 5.1 percent, the lowest figure in seven years.

1997:     September 1 The minimum wage is raised from $4.75 to $5.15 an hour—the last time it will be raised in the decade.

1998:     December 1 The largest U.S. oil company, Exxon, announces it will buy the second-largest oil company, Mobil, for eighty billion dollars, forming the largest corporation in the world.” (The 1990’s Business).

 

                                                                                                                   List of Emotions

 

Education

 

Education in the 1990s was very similar to how it is now. Many parents enrolled their kids in private schools to protect them from bad influences they may have had in public schools. Other parents said they would have enrolled their child in a private school, but they did not have the money and could not afford the education. Many funds were going to increasing security in schools rather than education (Carnagie 47). Shootings like the one at Columbine scared many school workers, students and politicians. It all started when 2 students brought guns to school and went on on a killing spree, they committed suicide after claiming 13 victims (Carnagie 50). It was the deadliest high school shooting ever.

 

Some advancements for education in the 90s were quite great too. Shannon Faulkner became the first woman to be admitted to an all men’s military school (Carnagie 57). Technology was also advancing in schools. There was a lot of information on the internet which students were now encouraged to access(Carnagie 59).  

 

Columbine

 

Fashion

     The fashion in the 1990s was far more relaxed then it had been in previous decades. In a way, the fashion in this decade was rebelling to the “power dressing” in the 1970s and 1980s. Instead of having very structured, stiff clothing such as black suits and ties for both men and women in the working world. Now, clothing was made to fit the life style and be more comfortable. Khaki pants, knit tops and loose fitting jeans made up the average American’s wardrobe. Also, the idea of retro clothing came into play. Designers began to bring back some of the most relaxed fashions from different decades such as the satin gowns of the 1930s, A-line dresses of the 1960s, and bell-bottom jeans of the 1970s. They aimed to try to re-invent these various styles and incorporate them into the relaxed them for fashion in this era. Designers such as Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger, and Jean-Paul Gaultier were major influences on fashion. They created many different styles for a diverse society. Another huge movement in the 1990s was the “grunge” look. It was a style influenced by the Pacific Northwest. This style was made up of mostly loose-fitting jeans and old tee shirts.

 

Grunge Clothing 

 

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Film and theater

 

There are many memorable films, television shows, and plays from this decade. Some of the movies we all know and love released in the 1990’s are The Lion King in 1994 and Titanic in 1997. The Lion King succeeded in placing Disney back on top as the leading animated film producer and helped reboot the marker for animated children’s movies. Also, at the time, Titanic took the place as the most expensive film ever made at a cost of $200 million. This movie also started up young Leonardo Dicaprio’s film career and established him as a teen idol (Overview).

 

There were also many television shows sprang up in the 90’s that we still watch and enjoy today. These shows include Seinfeld in 1990, The Simpsons also in 1990, and ER and Friends both in 1994. This decade was big into entertainment because it was an era that more time was spent on entertainment for the sake of entertainment because there was no big social crisis for peoples’ time to be consumed by. Kids cartoon were also very popular around this time, as I am sure everyone remembers from Sunday morning cartoons (1990’s). Again, television was featured with a more relaxed tone and purely for the enjoyment of the public depicting the average social life of swinging bachelors, dysfunctional families, the outcast kids, and themes of this sort.

 

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Food &  Drink

The 1990s is known for several major food inverntions. Here is a list of several of the most popular inventions that we commenly eat today:

  •   Stuffed Crust Pizza was sold by Pizza Hut
  •   Bagel Bites were invented by Stanley Garczynski and Bob Mosher
  •   Fast food and convenience foods were becoming more popular
  •   Clear Pepsi was invented by Pepsi cola
  •   Arizona Beverage company was also developed 

 

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Print Culture

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone was released in the United States in 1998. The book was a huge success, and went on to make it a 7 book series, and make movies out of it. Other famous artists of the 1990s include Stephen King, Danielle Steel, Tom Clancy, who had many of his books made into first person shooter games, John Grisham, and Michael Crichton, who is most famous for his Jurassic Park novels and movies (Pendergast 1266) 

 

Books on tape started to become widely popular, because they were becoming cheaper, and the fact that you could now “read” in places that you could never read before, in the car on the way to work, while working around the house, or even while working out. Many sources of literature such as magazines and newspapers began to be published online on websites. E-book readers also started to become popular, as books were starting to be put into electronic form. Even though all of these options were available, many readers still chose to stick with hard copies of their favorite works.

 

 

Sports &  Games

 

During the 1990s, the sports world had some of its greatest moments and athletes. Not only did the athletic side grow, but business in sports soon became very popular. There are several aspects about sports in the 1990s that need to be recognized.

 

Sports and the Media-

The 1990s produced a large number of sports related movies. Popular movies such as Jerry Maguire, Angels in the Outfield, and many more were instant hits. They are still the favorite movies of many today. Sports also hit Broadway with Damn Yankees. It was a 1955 play starring Jerry Lewis and Bebe Neuwirth. Channels such as ESPN sky rocketed and almost every sports event was now aired for the dedicated sports fans of the 1990s. Due to the large involvement of the media and television in the sports of the 90’s, sports had many businesses and major funds linked to almost every sport. Also, sports memorabilia became apart of the industry growth. Baseball cards, signed jerseys, and various forms of signed objects became very popular to collect and valuable to have. 

 

The NCAA-

            Because such big money was now involved in sports, the spirit of the game began to shift more towards the financial benefits. The NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association, had to begin putting restrictions on the money that athletes could receive. Laws against placing bets on the outcomes of major games were put in place. They especially cracked down on the money involved in college sports. In attempt to keep the original purpose of sports in mind, the NCAA made it illegal for college athletes to accept money to play. These new restrictions caused much controversy, but were necessary to regulate the growing sports industry.

 

Women in Sports-

            The 1990s began to include women into the sports world. Players such as Mia Hamm (soccer), Sheryl Swoopes (basketball), and Venus and Serena Williams (tennis) soon became some of the first woman to be distinguished for their accomplishments in sports. Sales in tickets for woman’s sporting events soon skyrocketed for the first time.

 

General Events/ People in 1990s sports-

            One of the biggest events during the 1900s was the winter and summer Olympics. Beginning in 1992, they were separated by a two-year span. This was a major event millions of Americans tuned in to watch. Also, some of the best athletes came to be over the course of this decade. Athletes such as Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa, Michael Jordan, Peyton Manning, and Tiger Woods are among the most memorable players who gained recognition for their incredible athletic ability.

 

 

Music

 

Rock/Metal Music of the 1990s

In the 1990’s the rock scene was enormous, grunge was becoming hugely popular, punk rock was rising in popularity with bands like Blink-182, Metallica created what many people say is their greatest album of all time, and many popular rock songs were popping up all over the place. First, Nirvana, one of the most influential bands of the 90’s, sparked the grunge movement. Grunge was a form of rock trying to “fuse punk energy with hard rock riffs, all within a pop sensibility” (Loss 487). Their single “Smells like Teen Spirit” was one of the most frequently played songs on college rock and alternative radio, and their album Nevermind released in 1991 reached the number one spot on the Billboard chart (Loss 488).

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Metallica

Next is Metallica, their work helped to make metal and rock popular with their “Black Album”, or self-titled album. It got the name “The Black Album” because of the album cover, even though the real name for it is “Metallica”. Enter Sandman was the first single off of the black album and peaked at number 16 of the Billboard Hot 100. When the black album was released, it debuted at number one, and got people to look at their previous albums, causing each album to go multi platinum (Loss 449).

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Pop

Pop music in the 90s was huge too. The boy band scene was starting to take off with The Backstreet Boys. Their album Millennium released in 1999 debuted at number one on the Billboard chart, went twelve times platinum, stayed on the chart for 77 weeks, and was the number one album in 25 other countries besides the US (Loss 38).

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Ska

Ska was rising in popularity at this time also. One band, Sublime, became populare off of one song, “Date Rape”, which was played by a local radio station, and created fans for them. Some popular songs of theirs include “Santeria”, “Badfish”, and “What I Got”. Even though they were rising in popularity, just before the release of their third album, the singer, Bradley Nowell, died from a drug overdose.

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"The Way We Lived"

 

This decade was an era of trends. A lot of focus was put on the entertainment of the society and the more enjoyable past times of children, young adults, and adults. There were many fads in clothing, children’s’ toys, sayings, foods, television, pretty much all pop culture aspects were releasing many new products/ideas that all of us, who were born in the 1990’s, grew up with and loved as kids and still probably do. Just a few examples would be Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Furbees, Baby Bottle Pops, Push-Pops, Sunday morning cartoons, Rug Rats, and Pokemon, just to name a few. During this time there were a lot more people living in suburban areas and starting up family owned businesses. Home schooling was becoming accepted among school boards and a much larger percent of the population was graduating from high school then in the rest of the century (Alternative). Some popular sayings during this decade were “Just Do It” (Nike slogan), “NOT!,” “Chill,” “Crib,” “Phat,” “Trash Talk,” “24/7,” and “Whatever” are all very common phrases used on a daily basis by children, young adults, and even some adults(1990’s).

Also a very popular thing that popped up in this decade was Emoticons, or different smiley/sad/weird faces using symbols on a computer.

List of Emoticons:

 

 

 

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Government & Politics

This section evaluates the political and governmental overview that occured in the 1990s. The government and politics during the 1990s had several defining aspects to them. One major focus was the push for civil rights for different groups of people. Entering into this decade, the Soviet Union had just been broken up, communism had begun to decline, and the Cold War had come to a close. The effects of these major events were shown throughout the 1990s. One at-home effect was the need to cut government spending. Once the war had ended, the president was forced to cut taxes because there was no longer an obvious use for such heavy taxing. Another more international effect was increased isolationism within the United States. This was an attempt to stay out of political foreign affairs. An effect that seemed to stem off of isolationism was a shift in interest towards more domestic affairs such as scandals and groups pushing for civil rights within the country’s boarders. Ethnic groups as well as the homosexual crowd began to push for more rights and privileges in the rapidly changing era of politics.

 

The later part of U.S. government in the 1990s was centered on the Gulf War. We had been previously involved in the Iraq-Iran war, and during this decade, Saddam Hussein and his Iraqi military invaded Kuwait. This was seen as a great threat and issue by President George W. Bush. His primary goal was to get U.N. Security Council and U.S. Congress approval to get involved. He did, and the U.S. military became even more involved in the issue than it had ever been. It seemed like a short, easy-going war. However, it soon turned into a very high-strung, financially draining, tense situation that was far from solved even when the war had formally ended. The tension created with the Gulf war would later prove to provide the racial and social tension between countries for the bombing or the Twin Towers in 2001.

 

 

Leadership

 

The 1990s had one major political leader, or president. This president was elected into office during this decade in the election of 1993. Bill Clinton was elected into office. This came as a shock to most people because George W. Bush, who was a political favorite at the time, was running against him. He won by pushing the charisma factor superior to Bush and claiming that he knew more about the domestic affairs as opposed to international. Perhaps one of the most commonly linked ideas to President Clinton was his affair scandal. He was rumored to have had an affair while in office. Newspapers and reporters magnified this issue so much to the point that in 1998 he was considered for impeachment. However, he made a public television appearance to clear his name and openly apologize to the American people for creating such a scandal.

 

Even though he had this major scandal linked to his name, there are several things Clinton did that were beneficial to America. Some of these accomplishments were the economic boom, a balanced budget, reduced crime rate, and hope for peace in the Middle East. One of his major accomplishments was the creation of a new Democratic Party coalition that was finally equal to the strong Republican front. He finished out his two terms in office in 2001, which meant that

he was president for 70% of the 1990s. All of these things are considered to be the legacy left by Clinton as the 42nd president of the United States of America.

 

President Clinton

 

 

 

 

Law &  Justice

 

During the 1990’s, a lot of the laws focused on discrimination both in and out of the workplace. Laws being put into place were fighting for the working and social rights of women, African-Americans, migrant workers, and especially Americans with disabilities. A lot of the laws were to prevent businesses to reject job applications because of them being a woman or physically disabled. The disabled part was a big problem because businesses would not hire people who were physically disabled because of the higher insurance costs. These laws were affective since these problems are not common today. However, one problem that was relatively new during this decade that was being dealt with and is still a constant social struggle, which would be illegal immigration. This problem was now starting to get to the top of the social issues since there was really no big social crisis at the time. Things like illegal immigration and working rights were resurfacing and presenting a new challenge to the court systems and civil rights lawyers across the country (New Laws).

 

 

Religion

  

Religion in the 1990s also has several defining aspects to it. The political, social, theological, and violence related issues must be grouped together in order to fully define the religious happenings in this decade. Generally, Catholicism and Protestants made up the vast majority of church goers in the United States. Some of the smaller, but gradually rising minority religious groups were Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and the Muslim religions. Also on the rise was the “nondenominational” group. This is a religious group that did not show tendencies towards one branch of Christianity. Instead, they became more of a neutral, family-oriented religious group. Worship services were held for a great number of people with very little attention paid to traditional ways or concern for theology. At this point, about 40 percent of the American people surveyed saying that they regularly attended a church service. This percentage is thought to be only slightly exaggerated. However, this number has remained almost unchanged since the 1960s. Although not everyone reported regularly attending a mass, 95 percent claimed to believe in God.

 

Although the number of religiously active people did not seem to change much, there was a public concern for the lack of morals and increasingly lax approach towards religion. The President Clinton scandal, a more accepting view towards homosexuality, and the inability to outlaw abortion seemed to be evidence to the public that there was a decline in moral values in the United States during this era.

 

Politically, the government became more involved in religious concerns. The Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith case of 1990 gave a new interpretation to the First Amendment which made it illegal for the government to interfere with religious freedom. According to the passing of this case, some restrictions could be placed on religious activity as long as it did not assist or limit the theological aspect of the religion. Many were angered by this interpretation and tried to bring back the original interpretation. However, they did not succeed. The 1990s gave a new meaning to the rights of the American people regarding religion.

 

The Nondenominational Church                                                                                          

 

They are generally large, buisness-like buildings that have a newer feel to them and can hold the great number of members they tried to attract in the 1990s.

 

 

 

Positive Political Cartoon

 

 

This is a positive political cartoon representing the 1990s because it implies that Clinto was able to equally support a balanced economy as well as the American people.

 

Negative Political Cartoon

 

 

This cartoon shows how some of the public felt that the government was underestimating the seriousness of entering into the Gulf War. It is negative because it shows that not all of America was behind their government going into the war.

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

  

Although the 1990s is the decade that is the furthest away from World War II, the effects, beliefs, and values can still be seen in a variety of ways. Events such as the shootings at Columbine were evidence that the effects of post war America had carried over into this decade. The shootings that occured on this day showed that racial and social tension existed in the 1990s. Homosexual groups were beginning to push for equal civil rights in America. These groups faces a variety of hate crimes and exclusion from society which also provided evidance that the racial and sexist tension could still be seen like it was during World War II. Even though several efforts and attempts were made to eliminate these hate crimes against various groups of people, Columbine and the hate crimes were clear evidence that these issues were still not resolved several decades after World War II.

 

The 1990s culture can also be compared with the post World War II Era. We were leading power in technological advances with improvements in computers and DVD players in the 90s. The only thing different is that during the World War 2 time frame, we were creating bombs and war machines instead. We also continued to be, if not the leading military powers, one of the leading forces of the world. Also, equality among different groups of people was happening too. Back then, many black people and other minorities were discriminated against, beat up and treated unfairly, not being allowed into white only places. In the 1990s this changed to women, with the whole Sarah Faulkner incident. People in both eras also started working longer hours. They were for different reasons though. People from the post World War 2 era need to work longer so they could live. People in the 90s did it so they could have luxurious things like a big house or nice car.

 

The 1990’s had one leader that stuck out beyond the others and he was, of course, the president. President Bill Clinton was the biggest leader/influence of this decade, and his actions and values can be quite easily being linked back to World War 2. Take for example his views on economy. He would constantly relate our economic situation back to WWII saying this is going to be the biggest economical boom since the war. He would always relate the two as a form of inspiration to the American people and a promise for a better tomorrow. He describes energy substitutions/research as “the single greatest economic opportunity since World War II.” Also, he was all about not discriminating, which was what World War II was all about. One of his main values that could relate him to World War II values was that he was big into restoring American leadership and helping rebuild the “American Dream.”

 

Works Cited

 

Kelsee Jurewicz's Works Cited List:

Information:

"Bill Clinton." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2010. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC>.

 

"Clothing Trends (1990s)." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

 

"Fashion in the 1990s: Overview." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.< http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

 

"Government and Politics in the 1990s: Overview." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.< http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

 

"Religion in the 1990s: Overview." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.< http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

 

"Sports in the 1990s: Overview." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.< http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

 

"The Election of 1992 (1990s)." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

 

Pictures:

Photograph. 90s Grunge Fashion. 2010. Web. 9 June 2010. http://www.90s411.com/grunge-fashion.html>.

 

Photograph. Gay Rights! Seek Geo, 2007. Web. 9 June 2010. http://www.seekgeo.com/?p=2338>.

 

Photograph. Gulf War. 2010. Web. 9 June 2010. http://www.schule.de/englisch/state_of_the_union/group6/project/page01.htm>.

 

Photograph. Solving the Mystery of Gulf War Syndrome. Midwest Today, Nov. 1997. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.midtod.com/9710/gulfwar.phtml>.

 

Photograph. The Chapel. 2010. Web. 10 June 2010. http://cleveland.about.com/od/akronandsummitcounty/ig/Akron-Area-Churches/The-Chapel-.htm>.

 

Photograph. The Mo Kelley Report. 15 July 2009. Web. 9 June 2010. http://mokellyreport.wordpress.com/2009/07/15/phi-beta-sigma-celebrities-inductions-crystallize-greek-debate/>.

 

Photograph. Torn Tights Trends as Grunge Returns. Sock Shop, 24 Apr. 2008. Web. 9 June 2010. http://www.sockshop.co.uk/latest_news/april2008/18566340/index.html>.

 

Youtube Videos:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUQ-9YKNTBw

 

Eric McCann's Works Cited List:

Information

"1990s: Print Culture." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1265-1266. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

Detroit: Schirmer Reference, 2004. 36-38. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

Kaufman, Gil. "Sublime." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Popular Musicians Since 1990. Ed. Stephen Wasserstein, Ken Wachsberger, and Tanya Laplante. Vol. 2. Detroit: Schirmer Reference, 2004. 658-659. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

Loss, Archie. "Backstreet Boys." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Popular Musicians Since 1990. Ed. Stephen Wasserstein, Ken Wachsberger, and Tanya Laplante. Vol. 1.

 

Loss, Archie. "Nirvana." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Popular Musicians Since 1990. Ed. Stephen Wasserstein, Ken Wachsberger, and Tanya Laplante. Vol. 2. Detroit: Schirmer Reference, 2004. 485-488. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

"Metallica." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Ed. Nicolas Slonimsky and Laura Kuhn. Vol. 4. New York: Schirmer, 2001. 2422-2423. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

"The 1990s Education: Topics in the News." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 49-60. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

"The 1990s Education: Overview." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 46-47. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 June 2010.

 

"The 1990s Lifestyles and Social Trends: Overview." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 94-95. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 June 2010.

 

Pictures

Photograph. All Products. Spire.ee. Web. 10 June 2010. http://spire.ee/shop/allprods.php/fl/T/page/2.

 

Photograph. Crystal Pepsi...Excuse Me? Retro Junk. Web. 10 June 2010. http://www.retrojunk.com/details_articles/1469/.

 

Photograph. Jurassic Park Theme. PSP-Themes. Web. 10 June 2010. http://www.psp-themes.net/film-tv-themes/jurassic-park-theme-4512-psp-theme.htm.

 

Photograph. Popular Series. Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library, 2010. Web. 10 June 2010. http://www.evpl.org/books/recommended/series/.

 

Youtube Videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CeMeDihwyrg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l16nl56hDY&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4fndeDfaWCg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTWKbfoikeg

 

Evan Goan's Works Cited List:

Information

 

"1990s: At a Glance." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1224-1227. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

1990’s Pop Culture. YouTube. N.p., 22 Feb. 2009. Web. 9 June 2010. http://www.youtube.com/‌watch?v=l29-2cZNEX8.

 

90’s Fads. YouTube. N.p., 29 July 2009. Web. 9 June 2010. http://www.youtube.com/‌watch?v=IzMxcG38uIA&feature=related.

 

"Alternative Education." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 28-29. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

Criminal_justice_jurisprudence. N.d. School of Commerce Centre for Regulation and Market Analysis. N.p., 7 Sept. 2009. Web. 9 June 2010. <http://www.unisa.edu.au/‌crma/‌research_expertise.asp>.

 

Full List of Yahoo! Smileys or Emoticons for Yahoo Messenger . N.d. Labnol. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 June 2010. <http:/‌http://www.labnol.org/‌internet/‌voice/‌full-list-of-yahoo-smileys-or-emoticons-for-yahoo-messenger/‌764/>.

 

"Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 

 “The 1990s: New Laws, New Strategies.” EEOC. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 June 2010. <http://www.eeoc.gov/‌eeoc/‌history/‌35th/‌1990s/‌index.html>.

 

The Internet. Dec. 2008. Dynasium. N.p., Dec. 2008. Web. 9 June 2010. <http://dynasium.wordpress.com/‌2008/‌12/>.

 

"The 1990s Business and the Economy: Chronology." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L.

 

Pictures

Photograph. Emotional Faces Pictures. Photobucket. Web. 10 June 2010. http://media.photobucket.com/image/emotion%20faces/KSMarksPsych/FeelingFaces.gif.

 

Photograph. Emotional Faces Pictures. Photobucket. Web. 10 June 2010. http://media.photobucket.com/image/emotion%20faces/KSMarksPsych/FeelingFaces.gif.

 

Photograph. Internet. Web. 10 June 2010. http://terrystevenson.wordpress.com/2009/06/20/farmers-keep-pace-with-advances-in-internet-usage/.

 

Photograph. What about the Common Citizen? Agha Haider Raza, Oct. 2009. Web. 10 June 2010. http://ahraza.wordpress.com/2009/10/.

 

Youtube Videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l29-2cZNEX8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzMxcG38uIA&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

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