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A2 1980s De Zwaan

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Katherine Mullan

Evan Chen

Brendan Tsai

Kevin Moskowitz

Sebastian Achterberg 


MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

 

 

1980's

   

"We have the duty to protect the life of an unborn child." - Ronald Reagan 

 

Business & the Economy - Kevin

 

     The economy of the 1980s started out on a bad note, with interest rates at a record high 20 percent in 1980. Oil prices peaked at over $1.40 per gallon in 1981. Even with Ronald Reagan in the White House, things were not looking up. By the mid-80s, imports were at an all-time high, far surpassing American exports, hurting the U.S. trade balance and crippling the overall value of items in the U.S.

The American automobile industry started to suffer greatly with the oil crisis in the late 70's and early 80's. The big three only had one or two platforms on which they based their cars. This posed a problem when they had to build smaller cars that could be competitive with the increasing number of imports. For example, The best selling car in America in 1981 was the Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme, a large, V8 powered sedan, with limousine-like proportions. By 1983, the tiny, lightweight, European-designed Ford Escort, weighing in at almost half of a Cutlass V8, grabbed the top spot, although it actually sold considerably less, due to the tanking economy.

     Unfortunately for General Motors and Chrysler, executives at the top ignored the demand for cheap, small cars. The demand for imports such as the Honda Civic and Toyota Corolla seriously cut into the once American exclusive market, starting a trend that is still continuing today. By the late 80's, the new and revolutionary Ford Taurus now had to combat (for the very first time) an import for the best seller slot, the Honda Accord.

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     Another example of the down economy was in the housing market. Cost cutting and poor planning made for poorly made homes, that today have a lower value than comparable homes built in the 60's and 90's. It would not be until the very late 80's until the economy picked up enough for better materials and more experienced contractors could be used for the average family.

 

Education 

By: KEM

 

     

In the 1980's fights for equal education was at the heart of all the educational issues. In previous years many Americans had been denied of an education, but now that they had their chance to become educated most everyone who had been denied before were advantage of it; even though many whites secretly did not approve. Yet, despite all that more students graduated for college and high school in the 1980's than any of the previous decades. As school became more popular teachers got payed more and students got a better education.

   

     The 1980’s were a definitely more accepting decade than previous ones. Schools became more multicultural and higher up schools, the schools usually only open to men, ended up letting not only colored men, but also women to. The 1980s set new ideas into motion that helped make the basis for the education system we have today.

 

 

Fashion

By: KEM

     When it came to the 1980’s fashion people wanted to look thin, slim, and wealthy. One of the way people did this was by wearing shoulder pads. The idea behind it was the larger your shoulders are the smaller your stomach looks. Many women also thought that the poufy hair helped with the thinness factor so common hair styles included: teased hair, shiny blonde hair, stick-up bangs, crimped hair, and side ponytails. While for men it includedlong hair, frizzy hair, curly hair, and more.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     People, especially the younger generation, were influenced greatly by famous singers during that time, such as Madonna and Michael Jackson. Young teens would attempt to copy Madonna’s glamorous tight skinned clothes look. The popularity of Mini-skirts, crop tops, sleeveless shirts, leather, and off-shoulder shirts were the result of this. On the other hand many others went on to follow Michael Jackson’s style of dance of rock.

 

 1980s.jpg image by loversandfriends_babe

       The first time dance music videos heavily influenced the exercise that went on during that decade people would stand up and start dancing to the thriller once they heard it and for that reason exercise clothing, such as leg warmers and leotards, became very popular in the 1980’s. Also in the 1980’s was the notion of get rich get rich quick and looking wealthy. For that reason the “yuppies” (the younger generation) started were suits and more preppy clothing. Women started wearing suits to show men that they belonged in the work world to. The 1980’s fashion was definitely one of a kind and is not used much in today society, but it will always be remembered for its unique impact on America.

 

 

  

 

 

 Film and Theater

The 1980s are seen as a resurgence for Hollywood. During the 1980s, movie production costs were raised while ticked sales declines and it seemed that cable television and videocassettes would take over big parts of the movie entertaining, but the 80s proved to be good years for Hollywood. Many films during the decade demonstrated that social consciousness was alive and well in the movie business. Movies delivered massages about racism, the Vietnam war and the hippie movement.

Also a big topic in 80s movies are teenagers, often protesting against wealth, status, conformity and conspicuous consumption.

 

Popular 80s movies:

 

Back to the future                                         Indiana Jones


Blade Runner                                                                  Ferris Bueller's Day Off


Gremlins                                     E.T.


Terminator                                                      Die Hard


Scarface                              Rain Man


Star Wars - Return of the Jedi

Food &  Drink - S

 

"Instead of looking for what we ate in the 80s, you should rather look for something we didn't eat!" is what you get to hear while looking for popular 80s food. During the 80s, new flavors were created to produce a huge variety of new candy or to give new flavors to existing products. The result was often flashy and colorful, and a lot of food from the 80s is still known today or well remembered.

 

  Print Culture-Evan 

 

     The daily general-interest newspaper, USA Today, first hit newsstands in 1982. It was mocked for its short articles and generalness. Overtime it became popular and changed the entire newspaper industry. Many of USA Today’s approaches to journalism have become standard practice in the newspaper industry. The magazine, Discover, was introduced in October 1980 by Time Inc. and was sold to Family Media in 1987. Its purpose was to give scientific knowledge to nonprofessionals in a way that is easy to read and understand.

 

 

Top 3 bestselling fiction books in the 80s:

1980    1. The Covenant, James A. Michener 2. The Bourne Identity, Robert Ludlum 3. Rage of Angels, Sidney Sheldon

1981    1. Noble House, James Clavell 2. The Hotel New Hampshire, John Irving 3. Cujo, Stephen King
1982    1. E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial Storybook, W. Kotzwinkle 2. Space, James A. Michener 3. The Parsifal Mosaic, Robert Ludlum
1983    1. Return of the Jedi Storybook, J. Vinge 2. Poland, James A. Michener 3. Pet Sematary, Stephen King
1984    1. The Talisman, Stephen King & Peter Straub 2. The Aquitaine Progression, Robert Ludlum 3. The Sicilian, Mario Puzo
1985     1. The Mammoth Hunters, Jean M. Auel 2. Texas, James A. Michener 3. Lake Wobegon Days, Garrison Keillor
1986    1. It, Stephen King 2. Red Storm Rising, Tom Clancy 3. Whirlwind, James Clavell
1987     1. The Tommyknockers, Stephen King 2. Patriot Games, Tom Clancy 3. Kaleidoscope, Danielle Steel
1988     1. The Cardinal of the Kremlin, Tom Clancy 2. The Sands of Time, Sidney Sheldon 3. Zoya, Danielle Steel
1989    1. Clear and Present Danger, Tom Clancy 2. The Dark Half, Stephen King 3. Daddy, Danielle Steel 

 

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     Stephen King, Danielle Steel, Tom Clancy, and Robert Ludlum are just a few of the many great authors during this decade. Stephen King is an author who writes contemporary horror, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy fiction. He also wrote many stories under his pen name, Richard Bachman. Danielle Steel is a romantic novelist who is best known for her drama novels. As of 2005, Steel has sold more than 580 million copies of her books worldwide and is the seventh best selling writer of all time. In 1981, she began a near-permanent fixture on the New York Times bestseller list and was in the Guinness Book of World Records for having a book on the New York Times Bestseller List for the most consecutive weeks of any author (381 consecutive weeks). Tom Clancy is best known for his writings of espionage, crime fiction, and military science. His works include The Hunt for Red October (1981), Red Storm Rising (1986), Patriot games (1987), The Cardinal of the Kremlin (1988), and Clear and Present Danger (1989). Lastly, Robert Ludlum wrote thriller, mystery, and spy fiction stories. He wrote under two pen names, Jonathan Ryder and Michael Shephard. In 1980, 1986, and 1990, he wrote the Bourne Identity, Bourne Supremacy, and Bourne Ultimatum, respectively.

 

 

Sports &  Games-Evan

 

     In 1981, the Japanese game "Puck-man" was introduced to the American public as Pac-man and was an instant success. The game was a big hit and it dominated the gaming industry. All sorts of memorabilia also appeared such as playing cards, soft toys, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Pacman was named "Game of the Century" at Classic Gaming Expo '99.

 

 

 

Though the Rubik's Cube was created by an English cult in the 1960s, its popularity rose in the 1980s It inspired clubs, books, newspapers, and even Saturday Morning Cartoons. The Ideal Toy Company began marketing cubes in the 80s. Between 1980 and 1982, an estimated one hundred million Rubik's Cube were sold worldwide.

 



With the release of the Star Wars Trilogy being a big success, Star Wars Action Figures began appearing and soon became popular for young children.

 

 

Another popular toy line was the Transformers which was also a very popular TV show.

 

 

 

  Sports of the 80's

 

The Olympics in this decade were peculiar in comparison to a typical Olympics event. In 1980, the United States and many other ally nations boycotted the Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan. In response, the Soviet Union and its allies boycotted the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.

 

Basketball:  

 

     The 80s were the decade with the up and coming NBA Star Michael Jordan. In this decade, Michael Jackson played for UNC (University of North Carolina) and though he did not make the team in his freshman year, he showed his clutch strength over the next years. Because UNC was known for its great players, no one payed much attention to MJ because there were other fantastic players. It wasn't until UNC played Georgetown in the NCAA Championships and MJ making a 20-foot jumper for the win. But it was not until the 90s that MJ and the Chicago Bulls ruled the NBA.

     In the NBA during the 80s, basketball was ruled by legendary players Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Some famous basketball players from Detroit were Isiah Thomas and Joe Dumars. The LA Lakers pretty much dominated the 80s with championship wins in '80, '82, '85, '87, '88, but the Boston Celtics were not too shabby with championship wins in '81, '84, '86.

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1980
NBA: LA Lakers over Philadelphia 76ers, 4-2
NCAA: U of Louisville over UCLA, 59 to 54

1981
NBA: Boston Celtics over Houston Rockets, 4-2
NCAA: Indiana over North Carolina, 63 to 50

1982
NBA: LA Lakers over Philadelphia 76ers, 4-2
NCAA: North Carolina over Georgetown, 63 to 62

1983
NBA: Philadelphia 76ers over LA Lakers, 4-0
NCAA: NC State over U. of Houston, 54 to 52

1984
NBA: Boston Celtics over LA Lakers, 4-3
NCAA: Georgetown over Houston, 84 to 75

 

1985
NBA: LA Lakers over Boston Celtics, 4-2
NCAA: Villanova over Georgetown, 66 to 64

1986
NBA: Boston Celtics over Houston Rockets, 4-2
NCAA: Louisville over Duke, 72 to 69

1987
NBA: LA Lakers over Boston Celtics, 4-2
NCAA: Indiana over Syracuse, 74 to 73

1988
NBA: LA Lakers over Detroit Pistons, 4-3
NCAA: Kansas over Oklahoma, 83 to 79

1989
NBA: Detroit Pistons over LA Lakers, 4-0
NCAA: Michigan over Seton Hall, 80 to 79

 

Football: 

 

 

The 1980s also had many famous football stars including Dan Marino, Joe Montana, and Jerry Rice. In particular, Jerry Rice, the record breaking and setting football player,had a great success. He has the most career catches in NFL history and counting. One most also not forget the memorable moments from people like Walter Payton. The San Francisco 49ers dominated the decade by winning the Super Bowl in '82, '85, and again in '89.

 

 

Tennis:

 

In tennis and for the ATP tour, Jimmy Connors and John McEnroe brought media attention wherever they went. Martina Navratilova, Chris Evert, and Steffi Graf had the attention for the WTA tour.

 

Boxing:

 

In the 80s, there was the World Boxing Association, the World Boxing Council, and the International Boxing Federation. These three organizations were competing to see which champion they produced was the actual heavyweight champion. Below are the winners from the various championships:

1980
WBA Heavyweight Championship: Mike "Hercules" Weaver knocked out John Tate in the 15th round.

1981
WBA Heavyweight Championship: Larry Holmes retains his title in a three-round bout against Leon Spinks.

1982
WBA Heavyweight Championship: Michael Dokes knocked out Mike Deaver in the first round.

1983
WBA Heavyweight Championship: Gerrie Coatzee knocked out Michael Dokes in ten rounds.

1984
WBA Heavyweight Championship: Greg Page knocked out Gerrie Coetzee in the 8th round.
WBC Heavyweight Championship: Tim Witherspoon outpointed Greg Page in a 12 round-bout.
IBF Heavyweight Championship: Larry Holmes knocked out James "Bonecrusher" Smith in the 12th round.

1985
WBA Heavyweight Championship: Tony Tubbs in a 15-round decision over Greg Page.
IBF Heavyweight Championship: Michael Spinks in 15 round decision over Larry Holmes.

1986
WBC Heavyweight Championship: Trevor Berbick in a 12-round decision over Pinklon Thomas.
WBC Heavyweight Championship: Mike Tyson knocks out Trevor Berbick in the 2nd round (November 2nd).
WBA Heavyweight Championship: James "Bonecrusher" Smith knocks out Tim Witherspoon in the 1st round.

1987
WBA and WBC Combined Heavyweight Championship: Mike Tyson defeats James "Bonecrusher" Smith in an unanimous 15-round decision.
Unified Heavyweight Boxing Championship: Mike Tyson wins unanimously in 12 rounds over Tony Tucker.

1988
Heavyweight Boxing Championship: Mike Tyson knocks out Michael Spinks in 1 minute and 13 seconds for the title.

1989
Heavyweight Boxing Championship: Mike Tyson gives Frank Bruno a TKO in the fifth round

 

As shown above, near the end of the decade Mike Tyson has already began to dominate the heavyweight championships. It is in 1986 that Mike Tyson crowns himself the world Heavyweight Champion at age 22 and becomes the youngest heavyweight champion in ring history.

 

Music-Kevin

 

     The music of the early 1980's was as diverse and crazy as the clothing of the time. One one side, the more trendy music connected with the wild youth of America, on the other, a group of songwriters and storytellers connected with the truth: economic and political instability, relationship, and an increased awareness of globalization.

     The wild side of the 80's came through in many different genres. Metal, a genre that in the 70's had just been a label for bands that played with too much gusto (such as Black Sabbath), now was as full fledged and spirited as disco had been a decade earlier. Like many of the “new” genres of music in the 1980's it would reach it's zenith by the mid-eighties, and take a back seat to the more tried and true styles, which too would develop during the 80's.

     Pop music really started to transform itself with the advent of MTV, which allowed for the music video to shape the image of an artist, creating a required stage presence for artists. Madonna and Michael Jackson dominated the early-to-mid 80's. Thriller would become one of the most played music videos on MTV.     Madonna sold out stadiums worldwide, shocking just about everyone with her wild wardrobe that only the designers of the 80's could dream up.  Bon Jovi would also start their historic career in the Eighties.

     Rock would continue to evolve throughout the eighties, with a throwback to the classic rockers of the last 60's and early 70's. Bruce Springsteen would ultimately seal his fate as one of the greatest musicians of all time, with his albums Nebraska and Born in the USA. The latter's title song would serve falsely as a patriotic anthem for Americans for years. In reality, Springsteen wrote the song as a way of dealing with the lingering stench of the Vietnam war, and of all those who had seen the atrocities in “Nam” and had now integrated back into (or at least tried to) everyday American society.  Tom petty won the hearts of millions with his "Bad boy" attitude and rockabilly sensibility.

     The late 80's also gave birth to many songwriters to become self serving musicians, and still make a living. Steve Earle is probably the most famous of these “Americana troubadours”. His 1988 Copperhead Road would give inspiration to hundreds of small bands across the country, requiring the creation of two new genres of music that would eventually shape the 90's: Indie Rock and Alternative Country.

     In the final years of the 80's, country music eventually took on it's modern form. Studios began to feature drums more regularly and as a more prevalent sound in recording. The electric guitar started to become as versatile as a swiss army knife, being used in both rhythm and lead positions. A large number of new artists began to emerge, such as George Strait, Clint Black, and Alabama. In 1989, Garth Brooks would release his first album, which dominated the charts for months. Part of his success came from his career choice, as he had graduated as an advertising major from Oklahoma State University, which gave him an edge against many of his washed up predecessors; he knew how to appeal to a wide audience. He would eventually become the best selling music artist of all time.

 

 

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"The Way We Lived"

 

 

     The 1980's decade as a whole is often marked by many as a decade of growing prosperity and affluence.  Moreover, the people named "baby-boomers", which described the unprecedented growth in the population during the 1950's, had become part of the middle-age population, thriving to succeed in the professional industry.  

     In addition, a certain stereotype had thrived in prominence, and over 20 million people were coined the term for their "young affluence" and "well-to-do" careers: a yuppie.  This stereotype, which had developed in the 1980's, described a part of the American population between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-nine years old, whose job in management or a profession gave them an income of more than 40,000 dollars a year.  More importantly, the colloquial slang characterized this sector of the population as "free spending" and "lavish urban professionals".  They wore Ralph Lauren clothes and Rolex watches, drank Perrier water, and drove in the most luxurious cars at the time. In fact, many may have snorted cocaine, the drug of choice among the well-to-do.        

      The term "yuppie" was directly a product of the expanding economy under the Reagan administration.  The "yuppie" image symbolized to the world the great opulence of the nation, and attracted a great deal of attention and media in the rising economy.  However, it is important to note that they were not a majority of the American population, but rather a small minority.

 

 

- A stereotypical image of a "yuppie", a person who was perceived by the nation as "money-spending" and prosperous.

 

 

Government & Politics-B

 

The decade of the 1980's was known as the "Reagan-decade".  Ronald Reagan was elected to office in 1980 and served for almost the entire decade.  Moreover, his ultra-conservative, anti-communist ideals were essential in shaping the nation's economic and political fortunes. 

     Firstly, the beginning of the decade for the American population was filled with trepidation and apprehension.  Moreover, with the likes of the previous president, Nixon's Watergate scandal of 1974, trust in political officials had greatly dwindled, along with the ailing of the economy.  As explained in sections previous, America was experiencing a great depth of social problems, economic difficulties, as well as an insurmountable trade deficit.

     However, Ronald Reagan's election to presidency at the start of the 80's decade would drastically change the optimism of the American people.  In his campaign election, Reagan projected an optimistic "can-do" personality, and imagined an extremely well-to-do America, fully restored of its economic prowess.  In addition, Reagan displayed an ultra-conservative stance, by issuing that "people should have the right to the economy".  To ensure a capitalist and free-enterprise nation, he greatly focused on lowering taxes, balancing the trade deficit, and creating economic success to the unemployed.  His conservative beliefs caused him to disparage the idea of direct and large government involvement, a notion that appealed greatly to patriotic Americans.

     On the other hand, many democrats discredited Reagan's policy as one that would only "take from the poor to further enrich the wealthy".  Often characterized as the party of wealth, the Republican party was berated as a party that ignored the poor and focused solely on business' capital and investment growth.  However, Reagan's economic policy, known as "Reaganomics", had a entrepreneurial-driven focus that appealed to the public.  This idea was not focused on the criticisms of the Democrats, but rather focused on increasing the nation's demand for goods and services, in order to spread the wealth to everyone.

 

 

 

Leadership-B

 

     To many Americans, the nation's entry into the new decade of the 1980's seemed painfully slow.  Moreover, with the likes of Nixon's Watergate scandal of 1972, as well as Carter's inability to decrease interest rates, inflation, and the trade deficit, the American public desired most an end to the economic challenges that characterized the 70's.  Towards the end of the 1970's, Carter's liberal economic policy precipitated high interest rates and inflation.  These failed attempts played a large role in the decrease in American optimism, which former-acting star Ronald Reagan wanted to bolster.

     During the year 1980, the election for the fortieth president of the United States played out.  With an obvious anti-large government stance, Ronald Reagan used his charming intimacy and excellent public-speaking skills to depict his simple message: "People should have the right to earn your own keep and keep what you earn."  With heavily conservative ideals in his economic policies, Reagan promised and promoted capitalist ideas, restoring the idea of a free-enterprise nation and national respect.

     To display this, Reagan initiated an concept called "Reaganomics" in 1981, which was essentially based on heavy tax cuts and budget reductions for the American people.  In addition, this idea was supported by an economic theory known as "supply side",  This theory basically stems from the belief that by cutting taxes, people would allocate more of their increased incomes on capital investments, which would in turn promote more work and result in higher profits for all, workers and investors alike.  More specifically, the theory of supply side is outlined in the diagram below:

 


 

 

 

 

Law &  Justice-Evan

  

  • In the mid 1980s Congress abolished parole and passed harsh drug sentencing laws. Many states followed, creating a tenfold increase in the number of drug offenders incarcerated.

               -Reasons:

                          -Incentives toward cooperation, study, and learning skills would create a safer environment for staff and prisoners alike.

                          -Give prisoners a bigger chance to redeem themselves.

                          -Reduce high cost of incarcerating drug offenders.

                          -Address inhumane overcrowding of prisons.

                          -Lower possibility of terrorist and extremist plots breeding.

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

     In 1986, Congress amended the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952. Congress felt that the immigration was accounting for too much of the population growth. In fact, it was accounting for about 30 to 50 percent of the population growth.  They thought that the best way to control both the illegal and legal immigration was to eliminate the incentive. There they passed a law making it illegal to knowingly hire illegal immigrants. Also, Congress made it so that it was also illegal to discriminate legal immigrants who appeared foreign. 

Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments of 1986

     In 1986, Congress also passed amendments to deter immigration-related marriage fraud.  Many immigrants were marrying US citizens to become citizens themselves and it was not accepted by the Congress. "Public Law 99-639 (Act of 11/10/86), which was passed in order to deter immigration-related marriage fraud. Its major provision stipulates that aliens deriving their immigrant status based on a marriage of less than two years are conditional immigrants. To remove their conditional status the immigrants must apply at an U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services office during the 90-day period before their second-year anniversary of receiving conditional status. If the aliens cannot show that the marriage through which the status was obtained was and is a valid one, their conditional immigrant status may be terminated and they may become deportable ," (USCIS).

Immigration Act of 1990

     The Immigration Act of 1990 was established to increase the number legal immigrants allowed into the US each year. It also created a lottery system to generate the number of visas given which gave immigration chances to countries that the US usually did not grant visas to and eliminated discrimination of those of certain races and homosexuality. 

Religion

     

     As Religion expanded along came conflict. Many religions wanted to be recognized. Even though most of the nations were attracted to Protestantism many religions, especially Catholicism were on the rise. Many of the Hispanic as well as low income families turned to being Catholics. It became so popular that Catholic smaller families became more well educated that the Protestant. Religion also greatly affected the politics of the 1980’s many Christians came into office and for time to time they would help spread word of their religion.    

  

 

Positive Political Cartoon

 

 

Negative Political Cartoon

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

     The 1980's were a period of of great diversity, although much of which stemmed from previous generations. The eighties also was a generation of imports; cars, toys, games and policy alike. The culture, ethics, and events of the era shaped way people in America would live, even up to today, even if many of the eighties “fads” would only become an embarrassing memory to those who survived the times.

     In the 1980s entertainment changed drastically. New video games were being developed and more toys were being produced. America was being shaped towards what we know as modern day. Pop stars and celebrities, such as Madonna, were carrying a tide of change in fashion too. As more technology was being created and used, more people would follow celebrities and mimic them. Sports also turned a new tide. Famous players were rising up in all sports from Mike Tyson to Jerry Rice and Magic Johnson to Jimmy Connors. Much more people were able to follow these stars and increase their fame. Movies were also a big hit. Movies, such as ET, Back to the Future, and Star Wars, hit box offices and instantly rose to fame. Overall, during the 1980s entertainment was booming and America was turning towards entertainment and the future rather than the past.

 

 

 

ONE FINAL NOTE: The Legacy of the 80's

-Modern cover of "Rebels" by Tom Petty from the Drive-By Truckers. (2009)

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Works Cited

"Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union.." The American Presidency Project. 2009. University of

     California. Web. 17 Jun. 2009 .

 

"Europe Divided on Familiar Lines To Two Speeches." Prescott Evening Courier 54(1948): 6. Print.

 

Cooke, Jacob E. "Washington, George." Presidents: A Reference History. Ed. Henry F. Graff. 3rd ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. 1- 21. Gale Virtual  Reference Library. Farmington Hills: Gale. Web. 30 Apr. 2008. 

 

Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Eds. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: U*X*L, 2002. Print.

 

"Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Information from Answers.com." Answers.com: Wiki Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedias. Web. 15 June 2010. <http://www.answers.com/topic/immigration-reform-and-control-act-of-1986>.

 

Leonards, H H. Personal interview. 24 Nov. 2009.

 

Markus, Frank. "Evolution of the Species." Motor Trend Mar. 2010: 80-87. Print.

 

 

 

"In The Mid 1980s Congress Abolished Parole And Passed Harsh Drug Sentencing Laws." Common Sense for Drug Policy. Web. 15 June 2010. <http://www.csdp.org/publicservice/crowding.htm>.

 

"In The 80s - Food of the Eighties, Index C." In The 80s - Latest Additions to Eighties Music Pages. Web. 17 June 2010. <http://www.inthe80s.com/food/index_c.shtml>.

 

Literary Stars of the 1980s." DISCovering U.S. History. Gale Research, 1997. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/

 

"Movies of the 1980s." The Eighties Club. Web. 17 June 2010. <http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id21.htm>.

 

 

1985, April. "Invasion of the Corporate Body Snatchers (Herblock's History: Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millennium, Library of Congress Exhibition)." Library of Congress Home. Web. 17 June 2010. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/invasion.html>.

 

Pillai, Premshree. "Smily Cartoons and Comics." CartoonStock - Cartoon Pictures, Political Cartoons, Animations. Web. 17 June 2010. <http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/s/smily.asp>.

 

Religion in the 1980s: Overview." DISCovering U.S. History. Gale Research, 1997. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ 

 

"USCIS - Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments of 1986." USCIS Home Page. Web. 15 June 2010. <http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis/menuitem.5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/?vgnextoid=ec4295c4f635f010VgnVCM1000000ecd190aRCRD&vgnextchannel=b328194d3e88d010VgnVCM10000048f3d6a1RCRD>.

 

"1980s: The Way We Lived." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1197-1198. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 17 June 2010.

 

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