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A1 1960's Hedges

Page history last edited by Deepti Mahajan 13 years, 8 months ago

 Jordan Liu

Deepti Mahajan

Jessica Haefner

Sean Soave

Sofiya Karpenchuk

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

 

 


                       

 

 

Business and the Economy

By: Jessica Haefner

 

In the 1960s, America saw the longest period of uniterrupted economic growth.  Median family income grew by nearly 50% and more Americans were able to spend leiusurely than ever before.  Big Businesses and the government employed most of the nation.  Large companies such as General Motors, Ford, Standard Oil, IBM, and Coca Cola accounted for the success of the 60s. The computer industry took off in the 60s, with IBM monopolizing 65% of the business.  1 in 8 of Americans worked for the local, state or federal goverment and this made the government more than just a regulator, it was also now a consumer and employer.  Yet Supporting the Vietnam cost 10% of the GNP at its peak and almost half of the federal budget, and therefore there was upset between the people and their policy makers.  Also, women were empowered in the workforce beyond solely taking the place of men during War.  They mainly worked part-time, as to accomodate both their families and making some spare cash.  Representing Mary Kay Cosmetics was a popular choice, due to its social acceptance as a feminine and social opportunity.

 

Importance of Unions & Protective Legislation:

     Union membership rose over the decade and this supported higher wages and benefits.  This rise in membership is thought to be attriubted to worker's worries about the steady rise in inflation.  The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) was criticized as well as supported.  Critics complained that the AFL-CLO supported the War and was discriminating against African-Americans. Cesar Chavez and The National Farm Workers/ United Farm Workers had several victories, most notably their win against grape growers and wineries.  His methods of nonviolent resistance and economic boycott reflected the popular ideals of the time, along with a 300 mile march across California and a three week fast.  The United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) created contracts with over 60% of the grape market in California.  Lobbyist Ralph Nader brought about several immensly influential agencies and acts, including; the Motor Safety Act, Occupational Health and Safety Act and the Environmental Protection Agency.  All of these used the goverment to set restrictions on businesses, in order to protect Americans and the United States from reckless company actions.  In earlier times, public workers were treated more like public servants that were exempt from union rights.  The American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) worked in order to convince public workers that they deserved to be able to collectively bargain for higher wages and against discrimination.  An example of this agency at work was in Memphis, TN (1968) when largely African-American sanitation workers protested against racial discrimination, a boycott of white businesses was held around the city and received much attention nation-wide, and was even visited by Martin Luther King Jr. who was assassinated soon after, and by this the city agreed to raise wages and respect the union.

"New Products"

Sep 19, 1960 Business Edition

 

 

 

 

 

Education

By: Deepti Mahajan

 

            As it was with other aspects of culture in the sixties, education changed drastically during this decade. The baby-boomers were teenagers now, and schools were filling up fast. In fact, there was an eminent shortage of teachers and facilities compared to the number of students. The federal government therefore took a much more active role in financing education. President Kennedy said he supported federal aid towards increasing school funds and teacher pay, which was startlingly low at the time (the average starting salary was about $5, 160 in 1960). After being elected, President Kennedy allotted 9 billion dollars to education in an effort to raise the standard of education across the spectrum. The opposite happened, however, as the overall quality of education started dropping around the same time.

            Socially, the face of education was altered as well. With segregation in schools declared illegal in 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education), the federal government began actually enforcing the ruling in the sixties. Most Southern schools waited indefinitely to enact desegregation, so the federal government was forced to threaten to reduce funds. Some Southern universities were the sites of violent riots protesting the enrollment of a black student. Later, in 1969, the Supreme Court gave a very specific ruling: that it is required for all school districts to eliminate segregated school systems and run only integrated schools.

            Schools of higher education were also the breeding grounds of radical ideas and student activism, the New Left. The spirit of rebellion against “the establishment” that was spreading among the younger generation was very much present on college campuses. One of the main student activist groups was SDS (Students for a Democratic Society). They commonly protested against, for example, the Vietnam War, freedom of speech, and racial discrimination. Their efforts brought awareness to certain issues that would not have been there otherwise.

 

  

Fashion  

By: Deepti Mahajan

 

     The sixties brought many new changes in popular culture with the creation of the hippie movement. Of the fashion trends of the time, bell bottoms are probably the most well known. The hippie counterculture originated from youth rebelling against their parents’ values and creating a new lifestyle, a deviation of the “square” lifestyles their parents led.

Twiggy.jpg image by Tammaaraa

They rejected clothing of the “establishment” and therefore many got clothes from army-navy stores. Bell-bottoms were part of the sailor’s outfit as they were useful when at sea. The hippies added their own style to the pants, and the bell-bottoms were born. They became a symbol of the hippie movement and gained popularity, along with vibrant tie-dye shirts.

 Tie-dye and other psychedelic reflected the hippies’ hallucinations while taking the drug LSD, a commonly taken substance among the radicals. Another form of rebellion through fashion was the mini-skirt. Unlike the longer skirts of their mothers, young 60s girls wore much more revealing skirts. As for high fashion, much of the runway pieces of the sixties seemed to emulate the style of the twenties, with floral prints, cocktail dresses, and pearls as accents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Film and Television

By: Deepti Mahajan

 

     In 1960, about 90% of Americans owned a television. (Pendergast 214) Thus, television programming replaced movies in many Americans’ lives with light, entertaining shows like Bewitched and Gilligan’s Island, as well as Saturday morning cartoons and day-time soap operas. To overcome the less interest in movies, big movie makers sponsored expensive films, often set in foreign countries. These included classics like Cleopatra and Lawrence of Arabia. Although the big studios had left Hollywood, moviemaking did not diminish. Independent filmmakers started creating low-budget films. Even though they were far from masterpieces, these movies captured the interest of the masses and encouraged the production of controversial films that explored topics that were previously strictly taboo (including homosexuality and the rebellious spirit of hippies). Therefore, the Sixties allowed for a leap in movie variety in Hollywood.

 

These are some highlights of movies produced in the 60s:

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Food and Drink

By: Jordan Liu 

 

     Hosting dinner parties was gaining popularity in the 60s; with the end of rationing in the 50s, families had more money, and readily would show off their homes. one way they did this was through dinner parties. Beer was by far the most popular alcoholic beverage in the 60s. Most would purchase beer in a keg, as canned beer had not yet become popular. Wine was a much less common drink, but for more formal parties, guests would start with a sherry, then move on to white wine, red wine, and then a cognac (high quality grape brandy made in Cognac, France).

Food at dinner parties was basic, by today's standards, bearing such things as tomatoes, lunch meats. sausages and pies. Crisps were gaining popularity, and Golden Wonder released the flavors, Cheese and Onion, Smoky Bacon, Roast Chicken and Beef and Onion throughout the 60s. Besides certain technological distinctions, the food of the 60s was similar to the food of today.

 

 

 

Print Culture

By: Jessica Haefner

 

     In the 1960s, print culture boomed.  There was literature for all of the different American interests.  Magazines were most popular and were commonly found around the home.  For the young independent girl, Cosmopolitan  was revamped in order to give tips on what to wear, what to say, and how to act.  It supported the idea of a single yet happy and glamorous woman.  Here are some example cover pages:

  

Also, magazines rose to cater to the Gay & Lesbian community.  Most notably from the 60s, was Advocate, first secretly printed in the basement of ABC studios.  The main goals of the magazine was to inform the public of events going on and to support political activism.

 

The Race to the Moon against the Soviet Union was also reflected in print culture with the publishing of several sci-fi books.  A particularly popular novel, Dune by Frank Herbert, represents this animosity towards the Soviets by naming the arch-nemesis Vladimir, who stole the planet and enslaved its inhabitants.  Among its political roots, the novel also delves into the role of the environment and also unconventional religion.  Part of the strong love for science fiction during this time was also due to the expansion of technology and jets.  Electronics allowed people to do more than ever and this was reflected in futuristic and modern tales.

 

 

 

 

     The 60s is recognizably most remembered for its "hippie" style.  In 1967, the magazine "The Rolling Stone" was founded by Jann Wenner who stated that "Rolling Stone is not just about music, but also about the things and attitudes that the music embraces".  This magazine has since gone mainstream and published more pieces on electronics, style and politics. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sports and Games 

By: Sofiya Karpenchuk

 

     As colored television spread across the United States so did the professional sports they broadcasted.  Overlapping seasons such as baseball, football, hockey, and basket ball provided year round entertainment and sport commentary and coverage more exciting. Baseball during the 60’s was dominated by players such as Mickey Mantle, Maury Willis, and George Maris and teams such as the New York Mets nicknamed the ‘Amazin Mets’ who from placing second-to last in the 1968 world series went on to win the 1969 World Series, proving their underdog status with thrilling performances. Football had become popular during this time with athletes such as Joe Namath of the whose playboy image and heroics on the field made football an national pastime, including his team the New York Jets from the lesser known American Football League (AFL) triumphing over the Baltimore Colts of the well known National Football League (NFL) in the 1968 Super Bowl.

 

     African American  were beginning to establish themselves as prominent athletes in the Sports with female athlete Wilma Rudolph winning 4 gold medals in track and field at the 1960 Rome Olympics. African American athletes also helped popularize the game of basketball, drawing over 5 million fans by 1965, especially the rivalry between Bill Russell of the Boston Celtics and Wilt Chamberlain from the Philadelphia Warriors, the two best teams at the time. But the Greatest athlete during the 60’s was boxer Cassius Clay also known as Muhammad Ali, dominated the Heavy Weight arena with his fighting prowess and witty remarks.

 

     At home families played the game twister where each person would try to balance in select position based on what color or body part the spinner landed. Twister became a house hold name when The Tonight Show’s host Johnny Carson played the game live with the famous actress Eva Gabor.  Three million units were sold the day after the show. Frisbee during this time became a national pastime, going from a pie tin to today’s plastic disc. The game became especially popular on California Beaches where the game evolved into more flashy and complicated maneuvers known as Ultimate Frisbee, Freestyle Frisbee, etc.

 

 

 Teens enjoy playing the game Twister. Corbis Corporation. Reproduced by permission.

Music

By: Jordan Liu 

 

The Beatles hit the United States in 1964, quickly taking on the role of an original and influential band. Many musicians in the 60s were looking to create something new, and much of the music was influenced by drug use, meant to imitate or enhance drug trips. The Beatles' music was said to have the "mind blowing" qualities of LSD without taking the drug itself (Pendergast).

 

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"A Day In The Life," by John Lennon, exemplifies the height of the Beatles' experimentation with sound.

 

Other artists in the 1960s split into two different streams. Some bands produced light music with pleasing lyrics to sell to pop stations, while others tackled political issues, using their music as a form of political activity as well as self expression.

 

Get a playlist! Standalone player Get Ringtones

 

 

 

The Way We Lived

By: Jordan Liu

 

The different lifestyles of the 1960s were created by all the movements of the 60s, including the Civil Rights movement, the Gay Liberation and Woman's Right's movements which were associated with the Sexual Revolution, and the Youth movement. As a result of the variety of movements, Americans were divided into different cliques.

 

 

(The largest movement was the Civil Rights movement, with influential leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr and Malcom X. Non-violent protesters participated in sit-ins and boycotts to express their discontent with the segregation and racism in the South. Hundreds of thousands of Americans backed their discontent as the federal government introduced equal rights laws.)

 

"The women's and gay liberation movements were all part of an ongoing sexual revolution that included a new permissiveness toward all things sexual" (Pendergast). The Sexual Revolution also sparked chains of single bars as well as outbreaks of sexually transmitted diseases.

 

College students and young adults were especially active during this time. Their idealism was reflected in their actions, as students all over the country joined causes such as the Students for a Democratic Society. The SDS was the largest of many youth organizations which opposed the Vietnam War. Unfortunately, their original idealism was shattered as the SDS eventually evolved into a radical group which used violence to attempt to overthrow the government.

 

  

 

(The Hippies were a group of people who rejected conventional society, or "straights." They were brought together by shared intellectual curiosity, disdain of the norm, their taste in music and literature and their affinity for drug use. The most popular recreational drugs used by hippies were Marijuana and LSD.)

 

Government and Politics 

 

By: Sofiya Karpenchuk

 

     Government and Politics during the 1960’s was a time of optimism and change, a transition from the more conservative 50’s.   The election of John F. Kennedy filled the country with hope as his inspiring words “Ask not what your country can do for you- ask what you can do for your country” (Pendergast), motivated the American people to uphold the values of Democracy. This set the stage for political groups such as the Free Speech Movement (FSM) in Berkley, California successfully agitated for the right to free speech on university campuses and civil rights. During Johnson tenure as president, his declaration of war on Vietnam was viewed with enthusiasm as America was stopping the spread of Communism. But as the war dragged on without success, Americans began withdrawing      support and questioning the government’s intentions toward the war.

 

     Opposition emerged in the form of new political groups such as National Mobilization Committee (NMC) and YIP (Youth Initiative Program) also known as Yippies, who protested the war in Vietnam by holding teach-ins, marches, stationing themselves near draft/ recruitment centers to discourage recruits from signing up, and putting on music festivals. During the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago Illinois, the NMC, Yippies, and other political groups gathered in Chicago to demonstrate against the war in Vietnam. Tensions arose between the City and demonstrators, as police brought down protests with tear gas and batons. Political groups also faced difficulties in getting the city to allow them permits for marches, concerts, and for using the parks as sleeping grounds.

 

     On August 28th several thousand demonstrators marched towards the International Amphitheater where the Convention was taking place and several were arrested. Of those arrested were leaders: Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Rennie Davis, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, and Bobby Seale. Their trial became known as the ‘Chicago 7’ after Seale was removed from the case by Judge Hoffman on a charge of contempt. The defendants were accused of conspiring to create a riot by crossing state borders. The trial was the first to be broadcasted nationally in what became known as one of the most controversial trials,  where yippie leaders Rubin and Hoffman used ‘guerilla theater’ tactics  by insulting the Judge, dressing in Judicial robes, and mocking court proceedings in order to gain national attention to their cause. The defendants were proven not guilty but 5 of them were convicted of contempt of court and crossing the state border to incite riots. In 1972 the convictions were overturned by United States Court of Appeal for the Seventh Circuit , all seven were acquitted and charges against Bobby Seale dropped.  

                                                                                  "Chicago 7" Trial:

 

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Leadership

 

 

 

By: Jessica Haefner

 

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Part of JFK's Inaugural Address (1961)         Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I have a Dream" Speech at the Lincoln Memorial (1963)

The adored president from 1961-1963       Recognizably the most notable civil rights demonstator, MLK brought hope for millions of Americans.

who was tragically assassinated.  His           He brought together masses of people and was involved in demonstratrions such as sit-ins, boycotts,

efforts were placed mainly on civil               and marches.  His idealogy of peaceful demonstration and equality for all spread like fire throughout

rights and disarming nuclear weapons.        America and further ignited the integration of Blacks and Whites in society together.

Americans were in awe at his youth, charisma,

vigor and vision of a free world.

 

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Stokely Carmichael (30 years later)

An avid advocate for Black Power, Carmichael fueled student protests into often violent clashes.

Leading the Black Panthers under Malcolm X's beliefs, he believed that violence was only a fair

response to the often physical opposition demonstrators faced.  He also opposed the hypocrisy

of the Vietnam War, as seen in the above video.

 

     Following Kennedy's death, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon were in office.  Johnson ('63-'69) made much progress in office, following through on the seemingly empty promises JFK had made.  He passed several acts; Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (which provided training and enhanced youth education) and The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (made discrimination illegal) the most significant.  However, the War in Vietnam overwhelmed the president and he decided not to run for reelection.  Nixon then won the next election and quickly fell out of favor with many Americans.  He reverted back into conservative spending methods and authorized the secret Vietnam bombing that greatly upset the public who was mainly against War efforts with Vietnam.  Successes of Nixon's include; lessening the scale of riots and troops in Vietnam, and opening up foreign trade by forging kinder relationships with China and The Soviet Union. Women also desired equal treatment and pay and their ideals were represented in Kennedy’s administrative decision to bring in Esther Peterson as the head of the Women’s Bureau of Commerce – responsible for striving for equality in the workplace, and bringing to women’s attention their potential values in all sectors of American life.

 

 

Justice and Law

By: Sofiya Karpenchuk

 

     Segregation in th 60's was still a prominent part of life in the South. Civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X encouraged fellow African Americans during this time to protest these unfair laws through civil disobedience such as boycotting buses and participating in sit-ins in only white  diners. Triumph over segregation first case came in 1964 in  The of Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. The United States, in which prosecutors proved that it was unconstitutional for any businesses participating in interstate commerce to refuse to hire employees based on race. After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, his successor Lyndon B. Johnson was able to pass Kennedy's Civil Rights Bill after conservatives in Congress refused to pass it during Kennedy's tenure. The passing of the twenty fourth amendment and voting Rights Act helped to secure the right to vote for African Americans by ruling that poll taxes were unconstitutional and  can not be based on race.  The landmark case Gideon vs. Wainwright allowed the accussed to have a lawyer provided for them if they are unable to find one, where as before only those who would recieve the death penalty be allowed an attorney by the state.

 

Religion

By: Sean Soave

 

The 60’s were a substantial turning point in American religion. It marked the election of the first Roman Catholic president, outlawing of bible reading in public schools and a generation of spiritual seekers; a new generation of youth who exercised their freedom of speech and demanded change.

 

The Civil Rights movement, Women’s Rights movement, Vietnam and the Sexual Revolution all challenged traditionalist American values that previous generations had rooted their beliefs in. Youth criticized the government, large corporations and organized religion for their materialism and conservative narrow-mindedness.

 

Many looked away from what they saw as an oppressive Church for religious sanctity, sampling various Eastern religions or turning inward, becoming free thinkers or using meditation to fulfill their spiritual needs. Widespread use of psychedelic drugs such as LSD and marijuana also contributed to more liberal spiritual movements and heavily influenced religious (and non-religious) music of the time.

 

In 1957, 14 percent of the Americans polled said religion was in decline in the United States, by 1970 that figure had increased to 75 percent. In fact, it is estimated that a staggering 42% of baby-boomers withdrew from going to church permanently. Also, in 1965, the Immigration Act (of 1965) was passed which drastically increased the number of immigrants allowed into the United States, especially those from Asian countries. As a result, immigrant communities began to grow and America began to experience its first large trickle of non-European immigrants since the beginning of the century, which led to heightened interest in Eastern philosophy and alternative spirituality.  

 

Rejection of traditional conservative ideals caused Christian churches to suffer greatly during the 60’s. However, after drastic changes, churches began to recover in the late 70’s and early 80’s. By then, many churches had become far more liberal and allowed their members the flexibility they had been searching for.

 

A Jimi Hendrix poster with obvious Eastern/Hindu influences.

 

 

Positive Political Cartoon

By: Sean Soave

 

 

Negative Political Cartoon

By: Sean Soave

 

 

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

     

     The 1960's was a time of great progress and initiative, as our the economy grew 36% between 1960 and 1965 do did the rising political activism of today's 'baby boomer' generation. With the election of John F. Kennedy, the conservatism from the past was shed as American looked up to the young new shining beacon of hope that promised to make us a world power. Never before had a generation been so involved in the political sphere as they were in the 60's, as people began to question their role in our nation. This shining era brought us what we take for granted today civil rights, expansion of education, and more disposable income. The culture, events, and leadership shaped the 60's in what we know today as a time of political turmoil and prosperity since post-WWII America.

 

     The culture of the 1960s reflects post-WWII America through its food, religion, movements, and fashion. After the war, families had more money to spend, and used much of it to improve their living styles. Many families would host dinner parties to show off their homes. The generous sharing of food reflects the more disposable incomes of the families after the war. Youth movements of the 1960s were out to improve everything - from stopping racism in education to creating the modern separation of church and state. Because more people were going to college, and more students had time for themselves, youth movements began to give the religion of the 60s an increasing openness to change. Fashion of the 1960s was shaped much by the Hippies, who made a point in rejecting social norms. They brought into style bell bottoms, tye-dye shirts, and almost anything else that didn't used to be in style. Their fashion reflected the rebellious youth trends of post-WWII US. In these ways, the culture of the 1960s reflects the vitality and turbulence of the United States after World War II.

 

     The events of the 60s shaped post-WWII America in many ways. The largest of these ways was throug the Vietnam War. The controversy of the Vietnam War lead to many youth movements all of the United States. For the first time, college students were actively protesting things that they saw as unjust, like the war. The Vietnam War was one event that helped to shape the 60s into the excited and turbulent era it became. Besides the Vietnam War, the Space Race by the United States' NASA added to the era a feeling of change and hope for the future. Americans had hope for future technologies, and perhaps even colonization of the moon or the moon's resources. Martin Luther King Jr's speeches, and eventual assassination also furthered the Civil Rights movement. Dr. King Jr, during his lifetime was able to preach non-violent protest for civil rights to blacks all across America, and even in his death became a martyr. In these ways, the Vietnam War, the Space Race, and the effects of influential people reflect and helped to shape the culture of the 60s.

 

     Society in the 60s was deeply affected by both the political and social regimes of the time.  Socially, the civil rights movement for minorities was in full swing.  Leaders of this movement included; Stokely Carmichael (the president of the Black Panthers), who supported violence against whites if they fought and agitated the protesters.  Originally, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) protested peacefully at rallies and focused on influencing the Southern vote, yet under Carmichael’s control- the committee turned violent.  These riots across the country caused much tension among citizens especially with black power organizations who unwelcomed white help, stating "Even the best white members [of black organizations] will slow down the Negroes' discovery of what they need to do, and particularly of what they can do." (Malcolm X).  A. Phillip Randolph organized the March on Washington, where a quarter of a million protestors stood for civil rights; specifically that of job equality for African Americans and also in rage of the Birmingham riots.  The post World War II baby boomers were reaching college age in the 60s, and their activity in campus escalated, and they protested against their colleges for free rights but mostly against their school’s support of the Vietnam War.  Another social rising was that of the use of hallucinogens.  Timothy Leary was a professor at Harvard and led many into use of LSD through his International Foundation for Internal Freedom (IFIF) which enthused experimenters with an IFIF-trained guide.  This group affected society overall by instilling values of mysticism and an Eastern-philosophy of peace.  Women also desired equal treatment and pay and their ideals were represented in Kennedy’s administrative decision to bring in Esther Peterson as the head of the Women’s Bureau of Commerce – responsible for striving for equality in the workplace, and bringing to women’s attention their potential values in all sectors of American life.  John F. Kennedy was the president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963 and pushed to ease tensions overseas with the Soviet Union and Cuba.  As the youngest president Americans had ever had, JFK supported the youth’s involvement in society and their ideals.  He eased Americans fears about Cuba by forcing the Soviet Union to remove their missiles based in Cuba and then focused on getting civil rights amendments into Congress.  With his tragic assassination came the nation’s mourning.

 

In these ways, the culture, events, and leadership shaped and reflect the 60s; the culture, mainly through its food, religion, movements, and fashion; the events through their effect on the people of the world; and leadership through their stances on important issues and their ability to change the world with their influence.

 

Works Cited

Baughman, Judith S. "The 1960s." American Decades. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research, 1996. Web. 

 

Cosmopolitan Magazine Covers. Digital image. Cosmopolitan Magazine Covers. Web. <http://www.gono.com/adart/Cosmopolitan/cosmopolitan_magazine_covers.htm>.
 

Beckman, Joanne. "Religion in Post-World War II America." National Humanities Center - Welcome to the National Humanities Center. National Humanities Center, Oct. 2000. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/trelww2.htm>.

 

Lock, Herb. "Jericho, U.S.A." Cartoon. Washington Post 21 Mar. 1965: 58. Print.

 

Lock, Herb. "Split-Level Living." Cartoon. Washington Post 9 Mar. 1960: 45. Print.

 

Pendergast, Sara, and Tom Pendergast, eds. Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. 5 vols. Detroit: UXL, 2002. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 25 May     2010.

  

"1960s: Sports and Games." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 4: 1960s-1970s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 877-878. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.
 

"1960s: An Era of Pessimism and Activism." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 4: 1960s-1970s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 785-792. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

Gianoulis, Tina. "Twister." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 4: 1960s-1970s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 885-887. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 June 2010.

 "Joseph William Namath." Notable Sports Figures. 4 vols. Gale, 2004. 
Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2010. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC



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