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A4 1950s Hedges

Page history last edited by majd 10 years, 3 months ago

Tim Woo, Majd Mokbel, Kurt Siebenaller, and Sofia Kim

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

The 1950s

                     

 

Business & the Economy - Kurt

 

 

 

The 1950s where a decade in which the United States of America’s economy made some drastic improvements from the decade before.  The 1940s had seen both the Second World War and the second half of the great deprecation.  World War II had also just pulled the United States out of the great depression witch left many parts of the economy with increasing amounts of business from the decade before.  The United States also had more disposable income than ever before along with more products to buy.

 

During the 1950s the United States had the most powerful economy in the world.  The United States was exporting products to much of the world.  Products that were made in the United States of America where respected for both quality and reliability across the globe.  Of all the products made in the United States of America some of the most popular in the 1950s included the Barbie doll and the Chevrolet Corvette.  The last two major factors in the economic success is the invention of the shopping mall and the credit card which gave people accuses to both money and products more so than ever.

 

 

Education - Kurt

The education system in the United States was strained for all of the 1950s.  Over the Corse of the 1950s the number of new students increased by 30%.  The Office of Education estimated that an increase of 345000 classrooms would be necessary in 1953 to stop the overcrowding conditions in 60% of the public schools.  They also reported that 20% of the students attended schools in the United States had safety concerns on basic things such as maximum occupancy.  The cause for much of this increase in students was the baby boomers coming to school age.

 

The education system also had other events such as the desegregation of schools happen in the 1950s.  The legal case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas reached the supreme Corte and in 1954 ruled that the segregation of America’s schools was illegal.  Well much of the desegregation took 20 years to truly happen it started in the 1950s.  A second and less talked about issue was that of where the line was between church and state at the public school.  Up in till this time the bible was openly read to the students by the teachers.  The process of removing biblical teachings from public schools began in1959 with Pennsylvania outlawing biblical teaching in its public schools.  

 

Fashion - Sofia

 

During 1950s, Americans began to develop fashion sense that was different from the rest of the world. Simplicity was key fact of the fashion in 1950s.

 

Women

     During World War II, many women had to work in the factories to fulfill the jobs since men were fighting in the war. After the war ended, women were supposed to be women again. Women began to wear tight, figure flattering dresses. Most of women’s fashion during this era was influenced by French designer, Christian Dior. Many fashion magazines then adopted these high fashions for average consumers. They especially focused on women’s body shape, such as dresses that were tight at the waist line to draw attention to the hip line. Also accessories and make ups were large part of women’s fashion during 1950s.

 

Men

     Men were not as concerned about fashion as women were. Men wore grey flannel suits, with white shirt and tie. This look became so popular, that it became the symbol of businessmen’s conformity.

 

Teenagers

     Teens began to reject old style fashion of their parents. Poodle skirt, bobby sox, and saddle shoes were popular among girls. Guys wore suits or at least suit jackets and ties in school. Ivy League “Preppy Look” was popular among guys. They did not wear suits, but they wore cardigan sweater and letterman jackets. Leather jacket, T- shirt, and jeans became popular among guys after they were worn by movie idol James Dean. This illustrated rebellious spirit among teens during 1950s.

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Film and theater - Sofia

 

Television

Television viewing grew immensely in America during 1950s. More than 17 million families owned television by 1951. As more broadcasting companies aired new TV shows, television quickly became America’s favorite source of entertainment.

                In early 1950s, popular shows on TV were variety shows and serious drama. However, by end of 1950s, Westerns, game shows, and comedy shows become more popular. Some of important TV standards were developed in 1950s. I Love Lucy and The Honeymooners set the standards for situation comedies, which became most popular form of programming. Game shows, such as The Price is Right and The $64,000 Question were inexpensive to produce and it was popular among American public. The Today Show was the first morning variety show and it is still being aired today. Also programs for kids were also started to air on TV, including Captain Kangaroo, Leave It to Beaver, and The Mickey Mouse Club. Many advertisers gained huge profit because they were able to sell their product to huge audience with TV.

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Film

                As television business grew, movie attendance had dropped. More people stayed home and watched TV. Movie producers responded to this new era in variety of ways. They made fewer movies, but those movies provided entertainment that TV could not. Movies they made had magnificent sets, huge cast, and epic story lines. Popular movies during 1950s include The Day Earth Stood Still, The Ten Commandments, Godzilla, and Ben- Hur.

 

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The first 3-D movie, Bwana Devil came out in 1952. The audience are wearing special glasses to view the 3- D movie

 

Theater

                Although theaters also had to compete with television, it was still and important part of American culture during 1950s. Many popular musicals and plays, such as My Fair Lady, (1956), West Side Story (1957), The Sound of Music (1959), and Arthur Miler’s The Crucible (1953) were all published during 1950s.

 

Food &  Drink - Majd

 

     In the 1950's, the people wanted food that easy, simple, and fast. For instance, McDonald’s became a corporation in 1955 and started to pop up everywhere because they were quick a cheap for a family to go and eat at. Also, Burger King was founded in 1955 to also serve people quick and cheap meals. Kentucky Fried Chicken became a franchise in 1952, provided people with fried chicken that was convenient to the consumer because they did not have to cook it. 

 

     Other than fast food restaurants, people also wanted convenience in their house when it came to food as well. Therefore, foods such as smoothies, frozen pizza, Twinkies, TV Dinners, Rice-A-Roni, and instant ramen noodles were created to make it easier for people to have dinner.Also people wanted an easier way for breakfast, so Dunkin’ Donuts was founded in 1950 to provide people with coffee and donuts.

 

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Print Culture - Sofia

     American writers gain international prominence in 1950s when two American writers received Noble Prize; William Faulkner in 1950 and Ernest Hemingway in 1952. Other famous works from 1950s also include Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger and “Howl”, by Allen Ginsberg. Beat movement, a literary movement that eventually became social movement also started in 1950s. New magazines started to replace old magazines in 1950s. Poplar children’s books written by Dr. Seuss were also published in 1950s as well.

 

     J.D. Salinger’s novel Catcher in the Rye was most influential work of the decade. The novel was especially famous among teens and young adults because of rebellious nature of the book. It was listed number one on New York Times best-seller list for thirty weeks. However, the book was banned for sometimes, because many parents believed that sexual content, offensive language, and main character’s anti- social and rebellious behavior was inappropriate for their children.

 

     The Beat Movement was a literary movement that eventually grew into social movement in 1950s. It started with group of writers in New York City, known as the Beatniks. They rejected materialism, and sought out for “real” experience, which included physical pleasure such as sex, usage of drug, and spiritual pursuit. They were interest in Eastern Religion, such as Buddhism. Also, many of their writing included disillusionment, bitterness, and an overwhelming desire to be free of social constraints.

 

     Many new magazines appeared during 1950s. Most of these magazines were specialized magazine or “niche market” magazine started in 1950s. These magazines included Sports Illustrated, Playboy, National Enquirer, and MAD Magazine. Popular children’s books by Dr. Seuss were also published in 1950s. Some of his work published in 1950s include Horton Hears Who (1954), How the Grinch Stole Christmas (1957), and The Cat in the Hat (1957).

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Sports &  Games - Majd

     

     

     Sports in the 1950’s were in a giddy mood and the drive for entertainment was never greater.  A lot of sports figures and role models showed their patriotism by serving in the armed forces during this era. However the main thingy that changed the course of sports in America is that desegregation was becoming more relevant in this decade. The number of African American athletes was increasing in sports such as basketball, football, baseball, and boxing.

 

Baseball in the 1950’s

 

Desegregation in major league baseball was slowly taking its course. After Jackie Robinson broke the racial barrier in 1947, many other African Americans have played in the game of baseball. Some big names during this time were Willie Mays and Hank Aaron. With the retirement of Jackie Robinson other African American baseball players had to carry the torch.        

     Willie Mays started out his career in the Negro Leagues in 1947. Then a scout from the New York Giants came to one of Mays’ game to watch one of his teammates, but he later realized that the only true player on that field was Willie. Mays Later joined the New York Giants B team in the Minor Leagues. He finally began his career in the major leagues in 1951.

         Hank Aaron, like most African Americans, started out in the Negro league, and then moved up to the minor leagues. His début in the Major Leagues start on April 13, 1954 for the Milwaukee Braves when the left fielder fractured his ankle. In the prime of his career Aaron made the All-star team in 1955, won the NL MVP award in 1957 and helped his team win the World Series, and in 1958 won the gold glove award.

 

Basketball in the 1950’s

        

African Americans took their first steps in desegregating the NBA in 1950 when the Washington Capitols drafted Earl Lloyd. This opened the gateway for some of basketball’s greats such as Bill Russell, who was drafted in 1956 and won 11 championships and 5 MVP awards, Wilt Chamberlin, drafted in 1959.

Other big names during this era were:  Bob Cousy, who was a teammate of Bill Russell, Paul Arzin drafted in 1950, and Bill Sharman, who was also a teammate of Russell. Also the teams were not the same as they are now, they were the Philadelphia Warriors, Boston Celtics, New York Knicks, Syracuse Nationals, Baltimore Bullets, Washington Capitols, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Indianapolis Olympians, and the Tri-Cities Blackhawks.

 

Other important figures in 1950’s:        

        

         Jim Brown is an African American football player that played for the Cleveland Browns from 1957 to 1965. He played Running back and is arguable one of the best running backs of all times, he would average 104.3 yards per game, 5.2 yards per carry, and he missed no games in his career. He led the NFL in rushing in 8 out his 9 years. He left the NFL when he 29 and MVP of the league.

         Sugar Ray Robinson is an African American that was a boxer in the 1950's, he had 174 wins, 19 losses, and 6 undecided matches. 

 

    

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Music - Majd

     Music in 1950’s was a great contrast to the type of Music before World War II and the time before that. Instead of using big bands to create music, all that was needed was a guitar, a bass, and a drummer.

     Elvis Presley was one of the most famous musical artists in the USA during this time era. Elvis was referred to as the King of Rock and Roll or some people also call him the King. Presley had his first recording in August of 1953, he recorded a two-sided acetate disc named that had the songs “My Happiness” and “That’s When your Heartaches Begin”. Elvis finally broke out with his hit singles "I Forgot to Remember to Forget", "Heartbreak Hotel", "I Want You, I Need You, I Love You, "Don't Be Cruel", just to name a few.

     In the 1950’s, a big name was Ray Charles, who was an African American that was blind and made a living form playing his piano to blues. Ray Charles is one of the most popular blues singers and performers in the USA, he had a movie made about him in 2004.

 

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"The Way We Lived" - Tim

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       After the “baby boom” in the 1950’s, new cities, ways of transportation, and high ways were created. This made life easier, since all of the major cities were now connected by high ways.

 

       Also, new ways of entertainment were created for the youth of the 1950’s. Such as the Frisbee, the hula hoop, the slinky, and the silly putty. As these creations became popular in the ‘50’s, the Cold War clouded these amusements out for the youth. Also, the youth were neglecting the more conservative sexual ideas since the Playboy Magazine and the invention of the birth control pill.

 

       Because of the Cold War, many considered communism to be taking over. They were afraid of the effect of communism on America and its influence over other nations. US Senator Joe McCarthy held hearings to investigate the influence of communism on the armed forces and the people themselves. The anticommunist community began to rise, along with women activists who began to fight for women to rid the stereotype of women as homemakers.

 

Government & Politics - Kurt

 

Most of the government was focused on the communist vs. democracy fight.  The government got involved in the Korean war with the North Korean army which was backed by china and the U.S.S.R..  Some of the key world events where the start of the nuclear arms race and the clams by Wisconsin senator Joseph R. McCarthy that 205 communists worked in the state department.  The tactic of calling others communists to try to gain power would be used by many as a campaign strategy, like Richard Nixon well running for a seat in the senate.  Senator Joseph R. McCarthy made it through two administrations that disliked him and his tactics well maintaining his power.

 

Leadership - Tim

        With the Cold War being a constant issue, President Eisenhower issued the New Look Doctrine, which could be considered as retaliation, allowed the US to use air and nuclear weapons to suppress Soviet Power. Since the USSR had become enemies to the US, Eisenhower felt that he had to suppress the communistic society that they had lived in. Although this had already been going on, he felt that he needed to be more anticommunist to suppress the rising rate of communism from the Asian region. This Doctrine was known to the US Foreign Policy as the “roll back” of communism from the birth countries of communism. Rollback, the tactical term, refers to the total annihilation of another power’s army and occupying that nation’s country.

 

         During the summer of 1953, 3 study groups were assigned with the mission of creating a foreign policy option. The first was the continuation of the Truman containment policy; the second was deterrence, or deterring forces by retaliation; and the third was liberation, or the use of political, economic, and military forces to rollback foreign powers. This third idea had many supporters such as Robert A. Taft, William F. Knowland, and Joseph R. McCarthy.

 

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Law &  Justice - Tim

 

Juvenile delinquents were on the rise during the 1950’s. An astounding number of teens under the age of 18 had been disregarding the people in authority, and with the increasing number of babies in the nation, more and more delinquents were on the rise. Although there were already many cases of youth crime, as the new cities and highways came in that regional issue became a national one. Teens under the age of 18 committed: 53.6 percent of all car thefts, 49.3 percent of all burglaries, and 16.2 percent of all rapes. These teens were the cause of a national issue.

 

Communism was a big issue, and there were many who were pointing their political “fingers of Justice” towards many accused communists. Such as in the case of Herbert Brownell Jr.: He was the Attorney General for the US during Eisenhower’s presidency, and resigned from his position and later accused President Truman for promoting a communist into a high position in the Senate.

 

During the 1950’s there were many laws and amendments created. One of those was the twenty-second amendment to the Constitution. It made it so that the presidential tenure could only last 2 terms. Also, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which stated penalties for anyone violating the voting rights of any persons or person.

 

In 1954, the Brown vs. the Board of Education challenged the laws of segregation in the US at the time. The problem started with a Kansas Law that allowed the Board of Education in Texas to be able to make segregated schools. This contradicted the Fourteenth amendment which stated that every person was submitted to equal protection in the laws. They claimed that these segregated schools were equal, however they were not.

 

In 1950, the FBI released its first TEN MOST WANTED list.

 

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Religion - Sofia

     In 1950s, interest in religion was very high in United States. The optimist believed that this awakening will affect American culture as it did in 18th and 19th century. On the other hand, critics from both right and left of religious spectrum thought that religion will only become another commodity to be consumed in American marketplace.

     Many books with religious theme became best sellers during 1950s. Some of them were made into movies. , such as Lloyd C. Douglas’s novel the Robe was presented in Cinemascope. Other movies with religious theme, such as The Ten Commandments and Quo Vadis were also popular among American public.

     Politicians also recognized the importance of religion in American society. In 1954 Congress added the phrase “under God” into the Pledge of Allegiance. Then two years later in 1956, “In God We Trust” became the national motto and was printed on all U.S. currency. Also the Advertising Council assured the public that “Family that prays together, stays together.

 

 

 

 

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MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

     

     The 1950's were a time in which America was coming out from recovering from WWII and a time of expansion and prosperity. Also, this decade was when the civil rights movement began which symbolized a time when African Americans started to stand up together for their equality. The leadership during this time period was influenced by the cold war at the time and the leaders of the 1950's had to deal with the issue of the cold war and the rising support of the civil rights movement. The culture of this decade reflects the economic prosperity of the nation, also the culture was greatly influenced by the civil rights movement as well.

     The major events in the 1950's greatly shaped the post world war II America. The creation of the civil rights movement truly shaped post WWII America because it started the pressure on American Leaders to end segregation in schools, restaurants, and other social areas. The civil rights movement carried on through out the 1950's and in to the  1960's until it was resolved with the civil rights act. 

     1950's culture shaped the cultures that proceed it because in the 1950's African Americans were being integrated into more cultural activities of America, such as sports, music, and food. American sports, such as football, baseball, and basketball were integrating African Americans into the sports. These African Americans that took the first steps into desegregating America paved the road for future athletes of different races. The 1950's introduced a new type of music called rock and roll which reflected part of post WWII America because it was believed that rock and roll lowered the morals of America, which was seen mainly during the 1970 with the hippies. The new or popular food during the 1950's were foods that could be obtained easily and quickly, such as fast food restaurants and instant noodles. The food reflected that America was changing into a nation that wanted convince in the world that they live in, wether it be food or work.

     The leadership in this decade was crucial because the choices that they made would greatly affect the proceeding decades. The leaders in the 1950's greatest obstacle was dealing with the cold war and the spread of communism. One instance of this would be when President Eisenhower issued the New Look Doctrine, which allowed the US to use air and nuclear weapons to suppress Soviet Power. This new doctrine can be seen as an instigator for future issues with the USSR and their nuclear stockpile as well as the cuban missile crisis. Under this constant scare of communism Americans began to accuse each other for being communist which started the red scare. 

 

 

Works Cited

 

 

     "1950s: The Way We Lived."Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara      Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 767-768.Gale Virtual Reference Library.         Web. 8 June 2010.

 

     "Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union.." The American Presidency Project. 2009. University of

     California. Web. 17 Jun. 2009 .

 

     Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Eds. Sara Pendergast and Tom      Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: U*X*L, 2002. Print.

 

     Cooke, Jacob E. "Washington, George." Presidents: A Reference History. Ed. Henry F. Graff. 3rd ed. Detroit: Charles      Scribner's Sons, 2002. 1- 21. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Farmington Hills: Gale. Web. 30 Apr. 2008.

 

     "Europe Divided on Familiar Lines To Two Speeches." Prescott Evening Courier 54(1948): 6. Print.

 

     "Flexible Response: Was Kennedy’s Policy of Flexible Response Preferable to Eisenhower’s Doctrine of Massive      Retaliation?"History in Dispute. Ed. Benjamin Frankel. Vol. 1: The Cold War: First Series. Detroit: St. James Press,      2000. 115-122.Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.
     "Rollback: Did the Eisenhower Administration Regard “Rollback” as a Viable Policy Option?"History in Dispute. Ed.      Benjamin Frankel. Vol. 1: The Cold War: First Series. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 271-276.Gale Virtual Reference      Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

     "Beat Movement." Literary Movements for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Literary Movements. Ed. Ira Mark Milne. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2009. 29-63. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

     "Body Decorations, 1946–60." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: Modern World Part II: 1946-2003. Detroit: UXL, 2004. 877-879. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

     "Broadway." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 1. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 186-192. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

     "The Catcher in the Rye." Novels for Students. Ed. Diane Telgen. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 116-137. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

     Harvey, Edmund H. Jr., ed. Our Glorious Century. Pleasantville, New YorK

 

     Loschek, Ingrid. "Twentieth-Century Fashion." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 3. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 348-353. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

     "The 1950s: Fashion: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 6: 1950-1959. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 151. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.


     "1950 Fashion for Women - LoveToKnow Womens Fashion." Women's Clothing | Dresses | Fashion. Web. 08 June 2010. <http://womens-fashion.lovetoknow.com/1950_Fashion_for_Women>.  

 

     "1950s: Film and Theater." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 661. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.
 

     "1950s Men Wear - LoveToKnow Men's Fashion." Men's Fashion | Male Clothing | Big and Tall. Web. 08 June 2010. <http://mens-fashion.lovetoknow.com/1950s_Men_Wear>.

 

     "1950s: Print Culture." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 697-698. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

     "1950s: TV and Radio." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 727-728. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010

 

     Willie Howard Mays." Notable Sports Figures. 4 vols. Gale, 2004.  Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2010. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC

 

     "Fast Food during the 1950s and 60s." The Wessels Living History Farm, the Story of Agricultural Innovation. Web. 08 June 2010. <http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/life_16.html>. 

 

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Hank Aaron." American Decades. Gale Research, 1998. 
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"Charles, Ray."The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. Ed. Arnold Markoe, Karen Markoe, and Kenneth T. Jackson. Vol. 7: 2003-2005. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2007. 
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With the Cold War being a constant issue, President Eisenhower issued the New Look Doctrine, which could be considered as retaliation, allowed the US to use air and nuclear weapons to suppress Soviet Power. Since the USSR had become enemies to the US, Eisenhower felt that he had to suppress the communistic society that they had lived in. Although this had already been going on, he felt that he needed to be more anticommunist to suppress the rising rate of communism from the Asian region. This Doctrine was known to the US Foreign Policy as the “roll back” of communism from the birth countries of communism. Rollback, the tactical term, refers to the total annihilation of another power’s army and occupying that nation’s country.

During the summer of 1953, 3 study groups were assigned with the mission of creating a foreign policy option. The first was the continuation of the Truman containment policy; the second was deterrence, or deterring forces by retaliation; and the third was liberation, or the use of political, economic, and military forces to rollback foreign powers. This third idea had many supporters such as Robert A. Taft, William F. Knowland, and Joseph R. McCarthy.

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