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A4 1990s Hedges

Page history last edited by Klaudia Janek 8 years, 11 months ago

N I S H A,  B R I A N ,  A N N A,  T A N M A Y

                       

Table of Contents

 


 

Business & the Economy     

 

"During the 1990s, the economy was very strong. One of the many causes for this was the rise of the Internet. Many new businesses with comupter-savvy designers were able to advertise and spread their product to more people through the Internet. This left companies without the means to advertise over the Internet in the dust. The enormity of businesses that were able to take off during this period can be seen in examples such as Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft."

 

 

     Worker tolerance was at a medium. A white male on average would earn 125% the pay of an African American male. Although women were taking large strides in securing jobs that before had been done by men, they were on average still making less than the average man. Jobs in upper management were still discriminated, but people of other races were not outright banned from the jobs.

 

     As more jobs opened up in the growing boom of the Internet, unemployment was very low. Americans enjoyed a median household income of $34,076.00. The home entertainment industry did well, as it had done in the few decades past, as Americans' jobs allowed them more freedom and time away from work.

 

Education

 

     Starting in the 1990s, violence in schools became a big issue, and parents were starting to worry about the protection of their children while at school. Large numbers of students and teachers were killed, and the nation was shocked. One big event that most people have heard of is the incident at Columbine on April 20th, 1999. This was a very sad day, when two high school seniors came to school one day planning to bomb their school and shoot several students. In the end, 13 people were killed and 24 more were injured by these two boys. After they were done shooting others, they pulled the trigger on themselves. Communities started spending money on the security of schools, putting in metal detectors, and routine locker searches were preformed on a regular basis. 

 

     Parents worried about their children's protection, and were constantly worried that their children would not come home from school one day. It got to the point where parents started looking into new solutions, such as homeschooling, charter schools, and school vouchers. Parents did what they could to keep their children safe.  Parents that had the financial standards sent their children to private schools, to keep them out of harms way. As well as the protection, they felt Private school education was better than that of public schools. At that time, of the 40 million children who went to school at that time, 30 million still attended the public schools, while the rest were all sent to private ones. 

 

     Another commonly discussed topic involving education was evolution. There was a continuous debate weather or not it was a topic that should have been taught in schools. Many religious groups and parents were opposed to it for obvious reasons, namely they believed in creationism, and wanted the youth to feel the same way. At the same time, others thought it was something that needed to be taught to the youth of America and the students. To this day, evolution in schools is still a frequently discussed topic. 

 

Fashion 

 

     One big part of fashion in the 1990s was designer labels. Adults were into the real expensive and luxurious things, like Luis Vuitton, Hermes and Escada. Teenagers and youth were into the sportier brands, such as Adidas, Nike and Levis. Other brands that became popular at one point in time during the 1990s were Versace, Gucci, Prada, Armani, Dolce & Gabbana and more.

                                                                             

 

     Towards the beginning of the decade, bright colored leggings were a must, and could be found in almost every girl’s closet.  Such leggings were usually worn under calf-length skirts and long blazers. As well as that, body suits were also “in” during that time. Towards the end of the decade, girls moved more towards a style involving crinkled skirts, inside-out seams and ragged hems were also accepted more as well. Assessorie wise, the tote bag became the new backpack.For men, Designers were also a big deal. At this point, men’s fashions were all over the place. The styles ranged from loose cut suits to tighter, high-necked ones and to trousers with inside-out leg seams. They younger boys were still into the baggy pants and extra large shirts. In 1999 cargo pants were introduced as sportswear as well.  

 

     Casual fridays were also introduced to people in the 1990s. It was a strange and new thing for people to come to work in not-so-formal attire, but people enjoyed it, and the Fridays became a regular thing all over. Towards the end of the 1990s, a whole new style was introduced to the youth, known as "grunge wear". It was associated with Grunge music, and was a very casual style of clothes. Once again it involved clothes with a very loose fit, and most of the time, something was ripped. This was often paired with some sort of a plaid shirt or jacket or something. It was a very loose and scrappy-looking way of dressing, and teens used it as a way to "express themselves". 

 

Grunge clothes of the 1990s

 

Film and theater

 

     By the 1990s, film had become an integral part of everyday American life.  With the advent of home video cassettes, CGI computer graphics, and the production of more films per year than during any other period of the American film industry, the 1990s was a new age of innovation, and progress for the movie goers of America.

 

     The 1990s saw the creation of dozens of blockbuster hit, with titles such as Jurassic Park (1993), Forest Gump (1994), The Sixth Sense (1999), Men In Black (1997), and Saving Private Ryan (1998) all grossing over $500 million world wide. James Cameron’s Titanic (1997), however, stole the show, generating over $1.8 billion across the world. Disney entertainment also saw its renaissance with a series of successful films, portraying classical cultural tales, with Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), The Lion King (1994), Pocahontas (1995), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996), Hercules (1997), Mulan (1998), and Tarzan (1999).

 

Above: James Cameron's Titanic, the highest grossing film of the decade

 

     Theater too experienced a new re-growth in the 1990s, borrowing ideas and operatic roots from the American film industry. By utilizing cinematic settings and play wrights from hit Hollywood movies, Broadway set out to develop a new string of hits that revolved around this new American insight. Disney’s Mary Poppins, Tarzan, The Little Mermaid, and Beauty and the Beast were all transformed into musical hits that hit the streets of New York during the late 1990s. Acclaimed film actor and director Mel Brooks also turned his blockbuster films The Producers and Young Frankenstein into plays for the New York theatric scene. By the end of the 20th century, both film and theater were emerging and progressing into a new golden age of evolution.

 

Food &  Drink

 

     During the 1990s, Fast foods became quite popular within the United States. The fast food restaurants were more affordable than normal restaurants, and they were spreading like wildfire, also putting them more into the reach of the American nation. All of these factors resulted in chain restaurants like McDonald's being very popular amongst Americans. The 90s were also a decade of Junk food which was popular amongst not only the kids, and the teens, but amongst the adults as well, because at the time, they did not have as much knowledge on the negative effect of junk food. 

 

     At the same time as chain restaurants grew in popularity, so did the Pepsi market. It beat out the Coca-Cola companies by about three times. Pepsi used celebrities to advertise for their products, and based on how well they did compared to Coca-cola, it worked. Other drinks at the time included 10 K which was a sports drink that first began its marketing in the 1980s, but it sparked again in the 1900s. It was a competitor of other drinks like Gatorade and Powerade. 

 

     Near the end of the decade, studies were done, and people started to discover how unhealthy all of this fast food and Pepsi was for them. People tried to give themselves healthier lifestyles, and some people totally turned their lifestyle around 180 degrees, and started going towards the direction of organic foods. When people discovered how much better and healthier organic foods were for them, they switched to them, thus the market for organic goods also had a turnaround in this decade. This does not mean that junk food and fast food was completely out the window. Many people did not care, and continued to eat the same, unhealthy foods. 


Print Culture

 

     During the 1990s, American literature experienced yet another transformation that would shake the literary world. With the decline of minimalism, and modernism, new authors engaged in the bold pursuit of post-modernistic ideals, spawning books such as Mao II, by Don DeLLio, and The Stone Diaries by Carol Shields.

 

            Despite these sudden changes regarding the very front of literature, the average American continued to read and enjoy the works of those they had followed through the 1980s. Authors such as Tom Clancy, Danielle Steel, and Stephen King continued through the nineties to produce dozens of bestseller hits, with titles such as The Sum of All Fears (1991) [Clancy], Malice (1996) [Steel], and The Green Mile (1998) [King].

 


 

            J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (1997), the first of a series of seven books, was first published in the United Kingdom in 1997, and then in the United States by 1999. The world of Harry Potter, revolving around the magical adventures of Harry and his friends at the Hogwarts School of Wizardry captivated and engrossed millions of children, and adults, across the world. Although having coming under fire from religious groups, accusing Rowling of a obsessive fixation on witchcraft and the occult, Harry Potter was the single work of literature of the 1990s that was able to single handedly pull the youth of America back away from the TV shows, movies, pop stars, and the internet that dominated the era, and rekindle their interest in the very basic pleasures of reading.


 

     During the 1990s, the very mediums with which Americans experienced print culture with had also begun to revolutionize. The advent of technologies such as "books on tape" and the emergence of the "e-book" saw hundreds of thousands of Americans now reading newspaper articles, magazines, and novels in ways they had never been able to before. However these new forms of medium quickly began to compete with traditional "print media". By the end of the decade, newspapers and magazines had started to see all time lows in subscriptions, signaling forth a new era of media consumption.

 

Sports &  Games

 

     The 1990s were graced by the emergence of some of the greatest athletes and sportsmen of the 20th century. From Michael Jordan, the NBA super star that lead the Chicago Bulls to six national championships in the decade, to Tiger Wolf, golf's most dominant player since Jack Nicklaus, the nineties were a decade that will never be forgotten.

 

            Michael Jordan, born in 1963, had transcended even the most popular stars of years past, becoming a celebrity and NBA power house during the 1990s. Like Babe Ruth, and Muhammad Ali before him, Michael Jordan became nationally renowned for his place as both a player for the Chicago Bulls. Exceeding even beyond the boundaries of pure athletics,  winner of five Most Valuable Player awards, Michael would go on to appear countless time on TV and advertisements across the nation.

 

 

Above: Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls

 

 

 

            Just as Michael Jordan was one of the most celebrated basketball players that ever lived, Tiger Woods too made a name for himself during the 1990s. Half African American, and half Asian American, Tiger Woods helped shatter the stereotype of golf as an elitist, white only sport. Winning his first Masters in 1996, eighteen strokes under par, at age 21, Tiger Woods appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated that year forever changing the golf scene in America.

 

            Over the nineties, an entirely new category of sports began to take root across America. "Extreme Sports", sometimes also known as "adventure" or "action" sports, started to gain popularity. Although first shunned off as misadventures of the misguided youth, extreme sports grew and gained acceptance during the 1990s. Activities such as BASE jumping large increases in participants over the decade. BMX and skateboarding also saw the introduction of organized competitions, such as the nationally held X-Games, first programmed on ESPN during the summer of 1995. By the end of the decade, some sports, such as snowboarding, had even become official Olympic events, solidifying the legacy of extreme sports, first pioneered during the 1990s.

 

Music

 

     Music had a strong influence on the attitudes and fashion of the 90s. Rock got harder and grunge became popular. Grunge started out as a style of music but as it gained popularity became a style and attitude as well.

 

     Rock increased in popularity as well, with bands like Nirvana, Pearl Jam, and Green Day starting. Kurt Cobain, the frontman of Nirvana, became an idol to many teenagers during the 90s. Previously popular songs of rebellion and revolt against the government turned to songs of personal struggles and rebellion against blue collar society, songs for the working class man. The era of protest and rebellion was over, but the feeling lasted, starting the trend of songs about people trying to find out what they should be doing, how they can affect the world, and about themselves. An example of this is found in the popular Green Day song, Chump, from their album , Dookie, released in 1994:

 

 

 

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"I don't know you
But,I think I hate you
You're the reason for my misery
Strange how you've become
my biggest enemy
And I've never even seen your face
Maybe it's just jealousy"

 

 

These lyrics show how the band embodied the spirit of the time in their lyrics about the struggles of the working class man.

 

Rap and Country also gained popularity, with singers like Tupac, MC Hammer, Tim Mcgraw and Garth Brooks.

 

Lastly, metal became heavier and turned into death metal. Softer metal became less popular and people turned their music louder. The lyrics of the metal songs often had to do with anarchy and satanism.

 

 

 

Get a playlist! Standalone player Get Ringtones

 

 

"The Way We Lived"

 

     Now that the times of great change in the US were over, people looked for ways to add excitement to their lives. Everyone was striving for the American Dream, to live in a big house with a big lawn and lots of money. People became competitive with the sizes of their houses. The size of one's house became a standard used to measure their success in life. They often tried to live in gated communities, as safety became a bigger issue. To get these large houses in good communities, they began working longer hours. In many houses, both parents worked full time jobs, a change from how previous decades.

 

     Marijuana had been outlawed and drug use became less popular. Cigars, however, were a large part of life in the 1990s. People enjoyed getting together with friends, smoking cigars and drinking coffee. There were new trends as well. Feng Shui, the Chinese art of positioning furniture and items in a room to direct positive energy, became popular and people became more superstitious. SUVs became the popular vehicle of the time, and visiting museums became a popular pastime, as did gambling. The number of gamblers in the US increased greatly during the 90s, as people were making more money. People used this money to buy their large houses, gamble and buy things they didn't need. Pets became popular, as did beanie babies for children.

 

 

 

 

     People living in the 90s noticed that people were getting meaner. People were less considerate, open and trusting toward one another. They wanted more security and gates to keep them safe from each other. There was more road rage, leading to more accidents. The term 'road rage' was coined in this decade. This decrease in courtesy is often attributed to the increase in knowledge due to the availability of internet access. People learned more about the bad things happening in the world around them and it scared them.

 

         Email was a new thing in the 90s. People were using the new technology for communication more than anything else. Cell phones became common and people were constantly trying to stay connected in one way or another.

 

 

Trends of the 90s

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Government & Politics

 

     By the 1990s, the United States found itself emerging in an entirely new era of political climate. With the dissolution and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States suddenly and unexpectedly established itself the new sole super power in the world. In this new uni-polar political age, characterized by American and UN intervention, terrorist attacks at home, and immense political scandal, the United States experienced one of the most prolific decades of political action of the 20th century.

 

            The nineties saw for the first time an exponential increase in American involvement with leading peacekeeping missions around the world. In 1991, the United States lead a multinational coalition against Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi military, after Saddam had lead an unprovoked invasion on neighboring oil rich Kuwait the previous year. With overwhelming force, the Untied States and its allies drove forcibly drove out the Iraqi army in just four days after the “Operation Dessert Storm”, restoring peace and stability to the Middle East region. Embracing its new found position as “World Police”, the America over the course of the next decade repeatedly intervened across the world to spread the ideals of democracy and ensure peace. In Somalia, where the United States lead a UN relief task force in 1993, in Hattie, where the United States in 1994 halted an attempted military coup, and again in the former Yugoslavia, where in 1995 the United States and NATO forces carried out repeated surgical strikes against the hostile forces Sprska, America extended its ability in shaping world events across the globe.

Above: Operation Dessert Storm, Iraq (1991)

 

            Back home however, disillusioned and disenchanted Americans, and foreign radical groups abroad launched a series of terrorist attacks on American soil. On February 26th, 1993, The World Trade Center in New York was bombed by Islamic extremists, killing six people and injuring dozens more. This stunning attack, that left millions of Americans reeling in shock, was only accentuated further when, on April 19th, 1995, Timothy McVeigh, an American citizen and militia member, detonated a homemade explosives filled truck in front of the Oklahoma City Federal building in Oklahoma, killing 168 people and injuring 680 more. Suddenly, Americans found themselves at risk of not only foreign terror attacks, but domestic ones as well.

 

Above: The Oklahoma City bombing (1995)

 

            In 1998, for the first time since President Andrew Johnson in 1868, an American president was tried in the senate under grounds of impeachment. President Bill Clinton, accused of perjury and the obstruction of justice, was the center of a growing sex scandal between himself and White House intern Monica Lewinsky, an extra-marital affair that swept through nation as the Clinton’s “Monicagate”.

 

Leadership

  

     The President from 1989-1993 was George Bush Senior. He was a leader of the time, as he was president for one term, during which he sent troops to Kuwait and Panama. The next President was Bill Clinton, who lasted for two terms, from 1993-2001. His most important actions included ratifying the NAFTA agreement and passing the Family and Medical Leave Act.

 

     As in many other decades of US History, the country became more liberal in the 90s, specifically with homosexuality. This was an important time for the gay acceptance and marriage movement. In earlier times, homosexuality was most often kept a secret and considered a bad thing socially. In the 90s, gay people, especially men, began to come out of the closet, exposing their sexual orientations in hope for acceptance. This was gay pride. Mostly, the homosexuality movement was low-key, but there were radicals that had gay conferences and drag shows.

 

     The women’s equality movement also grew during this time, as women began to take a strong stance against unequal wages. They held more and more jobs of high stature. One example of this was Hillary Clinton, The First Lady. She was a State representative and travelled to 82 countries, advising Bill Clinton. She was later elected as a senator and known as one of the most politically powerful women in history.

 

     Before the 90s, there was only one woman on the Supreme Court, Sandra Day O’Connor. During this decade, the second was added, Ruth Bader Ginsberg.

 

     Musicians were also leaders of the time. With the Women’s Movement, The Spice Girls and their girl power songs influenced many and brought out the idea of independent women.

 

Law &  Justice

 

     The early 1990s was when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. The US launched Operation Desert Storm to free Kuwait. This led to the Gulf War, between US and Iraq. As seen in US's wars in the past, many citizens felt that the war had nothing to do with America, and that America should stay out of international matters.

 

     On March 3rd, 1991, an African-American man by the name of Rodney King was beaten by four policemen after being apprehended after a high-speed car chase. Although he was drunk and driving, the police had no right to beat a criminal to that degree just to “subdue him”. After the incident, King reported he had suffered "11 skull fractures, permanent brain damage, broken [bones and teeth], kidney damage [and] emotional and physical trauma." When the case went to court, the jury acquitted three of the four policemen and could not agree about the charges of the fourth man.

 

     The Rodney King incident led to the Los Angeles Riots of 1992. These riots went from April 29th to May 4th. These riots were mainly led by African-Americans seeking revenge for the racism the police officers played. Eventually, the riots had to be stopped by the National Guard and a public address by King himself pleading for peace.

 

     In 1995, famous African-American actor and football player O.J. Simpson was accused of murdering his wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and another man, Ronald Goodman. The trial became one of the most famous trials of the century, as it covered many controversial topics such as racism and celebrity status. The trial was one of the most-watched events on American television.

 

Religion

 

    The numbers of people in most religions remained similar in the 1990s as it was in past decades, however America was moving closer to total acceptance of all religions. This allowed minor religions, mainly brought to America by immigrants, to flourish. Religion did not play a major role in society or government in America during this time period. However, the late 1990s is when the threat of Al Qaeda first came to light, and religious terrorism would soon become a great fear for Americans, as seen in the September 11th attacks of 2001.

 

 

 

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Negative Political Cartoon

 

 

 

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

     Cultural aspects of the 19990’s reflected post WWII America in the beliefs, wants and choices of people and what they meant. One aspect of the culture was the music. People listened to louder, and generally more violent music than they had in previous decades. This reflected the feelings of the people of the time. After WWII, the US had been part of major wars twice, and this hardened the country. People felt like they needed more security, and to be stronger. This resulted in more violent lyrics and music in songs.  This music affected the people and was often believed to cause violence. There was an increase of violence, particularly in schools, in the 90s. This violence was often attributed to the culture of the time, literature, theater, film and music. The violence then led to a want for more security and gated communities. This was a trend of the tie. Cultural trends like this were mainly reflections of post WWII America, and led to things that shaped the country, making it what it is today.

 

    The Events of the 1990s also shaped the American people's outlook on life. With the end of the Cold War, and the growth of America as the world's sole super power, Americans at home experienced changes both culturally and socially. While the United States asserted itself across the world and in the far reaches of the globe, and terror attacks warned the United States of future repercussions, Americans at home had become disillusioned towards their cultural society. From this, young Americans embraced new mediums of self expression, such as grunge and rap music, both of which articulated the new found disenchantment of Americans. Movies also represent a prevalent escapism for Americans, expanding into and generating billions of dollar each and every year. Along with these more artificial means of escape came the decline of the older generation mediums of cultural communication. However with the middle of the decade, and the Oklahoma City bombing, many Americans realized the ignorance placed in disillusioning themselves further from their own society. From that point on, American changed gears and experienced a renaissance of technological and economic growth. Though some things may never go back to the way it was before, the reading of books fell dramatically for teens during the decade, and even the most popular novel of the decade, Harry Potter, diverged from deeper forms of literary titles, the events of the 1990s represented a new way of thinking for the post World War II American.

 
     American leadership in the 1990s not only struck a new chord with the American people, but also let the American people down at times. With the development of pop culture, and increased popularity of reality TV shows, movies, and celebrity pop stars, politicians in America were more and more likely during the nineties to be treated the same way. Bill Clinton, accused of having an affair with a White House intern, and put under impeachment trial during his presidency, created one of the biggest news stories of the decade. Instead of treating Clinton as a politician, under serious accusations of lying under the oath, Clinton, for many Americans, seemed like a figure of scandal, not unlike other celebrities of the time. This change in the treatment and view of our leaders, was the result of years of slowly changing cultural events, topped off by the changing standards of leadership with in America.

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

"The 1990s Business and the Economy." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 27. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 June 2010.

 

"The 1990s Government, Politics, and Law: Overview." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 64-65. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

"Al-Qaeda." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 1. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 35-41. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 June 2010.

 

American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, Victor Bondi, Richard Layman, Tandy McConnell, and Vincent Tompkins. Vol. 10: 1990-1999.  Detroit: Gale, 2001.

 

American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, Victor Bondi, Richard Layman, Tandy McConnell, and Vincent Tompkins. Vol. 10: 1990-1999.  Detroit: Gale, 2001. 

 

"Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union.." The American Presidency Project. 2009. University ofCalifornia. Web. 17 Jun. 2009 .

 

Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Eds. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: U*X*L, 2002. Print.

 

Cooke, Jacob E. "Washington, George." Presidents: A Reference History. Ed. Henry F. Graff. 3rd ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. 1- 21. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Farmington Hills: Gale. Web. 30 Apr. 2008.

 

"Europe Divided on Familiar Lines To Two Speeches." Prescott Evening Courier 54(1948): 6. Print.

 

"Music: Grunge Rock (1990s)." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/

 

"Music: Heavy Metal and Alternative Rock (1990s)." American Decades 1990-1999. Tandy McConnell, ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/

 

"The Columbine Tragedy, April 20, 1999." Historic U.S. Events. Gale, 2004. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ 

 

UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, Rob Nagel, Sara Pendergast, and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. p91.

 

 "The 1990s Education: Overview." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 10: 1990-1999. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 46-47. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

Loschek, Ingrid. "Twentieth-Century Fashion." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 3. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 348-353. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

Gianoulis, Tina. "Extreme Sports." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1272-1274. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

"1990s: Print Culture." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1265-1266. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

"1990s: Sports and Games." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 5: 1980s-1990s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 1271-1272. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 June 2010.

 

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