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B2 1960s Gallagher

Page history last edited by Kevin Villanasseril 10 years, 1 month ago




Aram M., Kevin V., Namratha S.




MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?


The 1960s



Business & the Economy (A)


During the 1960s, the economy was, in a word, spectaular. The economy kept growing to almost ridiculous extremes. Plus, inflation stayed roughly steady, and the household income was also good for the time. Along with this, relations with outside countries had become better. A good chunk of the economy came from exports to other countries.


The reason for this growth was primarily due to the baby-boom from the 1940s. The population was now getting overrun by those who were old enough to work. Factories had a large number of people to hire. Along with this, factories and other businesses were beginning to learn how to be more productive, and so, their profits went up, and in turn, so did the economy.


The 1960s also introduced a trend that continues to this day. Starting in the 1960s, more and more people were beginning to apply to white collar jobs, while the amount of blue collar jobs were slowly dwindling, though they still remained fairly common.


Education (N)


With regards to education more schools had to be built due to the post-war baby boom. The government allocated funds and began to put more of an emphasis on education. It was one of their attempts to break the endless cycle of poverty. But one of the biggest changes that occurred was the acknowledgement of the importance of learning a foreign language. This was especially realized during the Cold War. Reflecting on the importance of the U.S.’s Latin American neighbors President Kennedy authorized the Alliance for Progress, in 1961, which provided funding to fight illiteracy and increase the education standard. Another leading advocate of a better education system was Senator J. William Fulbright who persuaded Congress into passing the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange (1961). This Act was aimed to create an American international education, its goal being to strengthen “non-West European” language in the U.S. and opportunities to study abroad. The education sector of this decade concentrated heavily on a secondary language, realizing the benefits of this during the Cold War.

     Another giant leap forward was the desegregation of schools. No more were there signs saying no blacks allowed. This was a new generation that supported a wider range of classes (includingn fine arts). Education in this decade was given more importance, and the government realizing this they invested more money into the education system.


Fashion (N)

American Fashion was altered in the 1960’s after ...


The 1960s didn't start out with colorful clothes. They were dully designed and more appropriate for older people. Boutiques opened up and sold inexpensive, colorful clothing for younger people. During that decade, women started wearing miniskirts, leather boots and fake eyelashes. For women, minskirts were the most poular choice of clothing. Men wore Paisley shirts and had longer hair. But during the 1960’s there was an overlap from the 1950’s which had the "bouffant" (which was basically a dress that was tight at the top and puffed out at the bottom) look. Miniskirts were also much shorter (much to the older generations horror). One of the most popular hairstyles was called the “beehive” where they basically tease their hair and piled it high  on their head.


 Women also began to wear heavier makeup. When the Beatles became popular their suits became more popular among the men. Following, Neil Armstrong landing on the moon, space age clothing became popular (the material used was of a metallic quality). In the late 1960’s different ethnic fashions began to spread, especially the oriental, African, and middle eastern looks. In 1969 the hippies look first came to. This was one of the most popular for a time. The fashion industry was greatly impacted by outside influence. With Neil Armstrong’s walk on the moon to the influence of other cultures, all played a large role in how people dressed.        




Film and theater (A)


 At first, it looked like the 1960s were gonna suck in the film and theater department. In 1963, a meager 121 films had been produced. And, cultural phenomenon Marilyn Monroe had died on 1962. And...the 1960s really did suck for the film industry. Movies had to become "better", but the only way was with a huge budget (this was before films such as Rocky and Paranormal Activity). At the time, a "good" movie needed a budget of at least 1 million dollars, which was a lot at the time. But making a profit was tough: movie tickets tended to sell for less than 1 dollar, so at least 1 million viewers were needed to break even, let alone make a profit. Films frequently failed because of this, and to this day, the largest box-office bomb of all time is the film "Cleopatra", which was released in the 1960s, and lost over millions in money. Most stage sets were being demolished, or converted, such as the film tours that Universal began making. Times became so bad that companies were selling some of their most important props: MGM even sold the Ruby Slippers from The Wizard of Oz for a large amount of money to make up costs.


Not to say that the entire film industry was horrible at the time. The Sound of Music and The Lawrence of Arabia were released in this time, and both are considered by many to be the greatest films of all time. The James Bond movies also began with Dr. No in the 1960s, and 22 films later,  6 actors, and a few poor films, the series is still going strong. The Disney classics 101 Dalmatians  and Pinocchio were released. The list goes on.



Dr. No started the James Bond series, and it started a new genre of films: Spy and espionage films.

A theatrical poster of Lawrence of Arabia. Lawrence of Arabia is still considered by many to be the greatest film of all time.


Of note is that the theater at the time flourished while film suffered. On Broadway, many new musicals were produced, including Camelot, Hello Dolly,  Oliver,  Man of La Mancha,  Hair,  and  Funny Girl, some of which continue to this day in other venues. Classic playwright Edward Albee also wrote in this time, and his most famous work, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, still has a large cult following.


Television was also getting prominence in the 1960s, and at the time, it was a novelty and many new shows were created. Some have died out, such as  Mr. Magoo, but many are still are remembered and are cultural icons, such as Bewitched, The Flintstones, The Beverly Hillbillies, and The Twilight Zone. At least one series has continued through many incarnations: Star Trek. Cartoons such as Tom and Jerry, the Looney Tunes, and Felix the Cat are still sometimes shown on TV channels in this day, and are instantly recognizable to many in this day.


The crew of the Enterprise from the original Star Trek. Star Trek became extremely popular and led to many spinoffs long after the original stopped production, such as The Next Generation. Star Trek also happened to be the influence for many science fiction movies and TV shows to come, such as Star Wars, Lost in Space and Firefly.


A still from a Tom and Jerry cartoon. The duo are still icons of the cartoon world, and many TV show producers credit the show as one of their inspirations.




Food &  Drink (K)

The 1960s was a time of great change previously mentioned. Society was dominated by the youth after the post World War II baby boom. The young people wanted change after a much conservative 1950s. There was change in lifestyle of families, one aspect of that being the food and drink.  The people in the United States had consumed lots of meat and sugar. This is most likely because of the wars before this time, and they all food was not available for purchase because there weren’t men there to produce and a lot of materials were needed for the wars. Tinned food was which was started in the 1930s was still very popular in the 1960s. White loaf bread had become very popular, because in 1961 a new way of slicing bread was invented and was known as the Chorleywood process. The original corn flakes had changed to sugar coated cornflakes. The growth of air transportation from the beginning of the century resulted in bringing in vegetables from other countries. The increase of the immigrants from the Asian countries such as India and China led to an increase of Chinese and Indian takeaways and restaurants. The starting of the Indian and Chinese communities led to people start to develop a liking for exotic foods. Tange and pringles were made in the US in the 60s, and had come into much popularity throughout the decade.





Print Culture (A)


At the time of the 1960s, the television was rapidly making its way across America into homes, and during the 1960s, color television had been released, though it was quite expensive. And, with more and more people owning TVs, more news stations had popped up. However, even with the TV, the newspaper was still the preferred method of getting news. Television gave up to the minute news; newspapers had given in depth information, which more people wanted. Along with this, more and more "stands" had begun appearing, which some people took for granted, often canceling their subscriptions in order to get the same news for a slightly cheaper price.


The Philadelphia Inquirer in the 1960s. It took a while, but it got better.


During this time, multiple new publications had appeared. Most have long since died out, such as the hundred of anti-television publications, but some still live on. Many comics by DC and Marvel continue to this day, and some news publications also go on.


Sports &  Games (K)


Sports kept its status of always being an attraction of people during the 1960s. Certain sports had risen such as football and baseball, and sports such as basketball were on a decline. Even though baseball was still popular, football had been on the rise thanks to the formation of the American Football League (AFL). The NBA was being dominated by the Boston Celtics with their hall of famer player Bill Russell and coach, Red Auerback, and they had won their 11th championship in thirteen years in 1969. The NBA greats Wilt Chamberlin and Elgin Baylor, played through this decade. Despite the US being a small town rural country at the time, auto racing was on the rise. Baseball had been the most followed sport in the 1960s. Baseball hall of famers such as Willie Mays, Roberto Clemente, and Bob Gibson, played much of their successful careers during this decade. Three different winter and summer Olympics were held during this decade, but they had been overshadowed by the national and international politics. In 1966 Jim Ryan had set the world record for the mile with a 3:51.3 mile time. In the sport of tennis, Arthur Ashe became the first black American to win the U.S. Tennis Championship Title in the year 1968. The most controversial aspect of the 1960s was the famous boxer, Muhammad Ali. He won the heavyweight title in 1964, but he had lost it in a match in 1967. Ali was asked to fight for the US military in the Vietnam War, but he refused to fight, because he believed it was wrong to kill a person for any reason. The African American Ai was stripped of his title and was banned from boxing for this reason and saying he “ain’t got no quarrel with the Viet Cong.”The issue still pertains today, whether sports and politics should go together or should be separate.



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Music (A)

In the 1960s, rock music was finally getting widespread popularity in America, especially with the arrival of the British band, The Beatles, in 1964, leading to "Beatlemania". American culture was changing fast; people were growing bored of the music from the 1940s and 50s, and so, The Beatles seemed "new" and "fresh". The introduction of the band in America caused a large amount of rock bands to appear in America, both large and small, and even though few matched the popularity of British bands, such as The Rolling Stones and Pink Floyd, many still have followings and some finally hit it big in the 1970s or later, and rock music still being one of the most dominant form of music in America to this day.



The Beatles arrive at America in 1964. "Beatlemania" begins, and large amounts of rock music is produced.


Rock groups began forming quickly after the Beatles came; Simon and Garfunkel formed in the 1960s and continues its career to this day. The Yardbirds were shortlived, but they paved the way to Led Zeppelin, which made a new genre: hard rock.


Although groups were the most common bands at the time, solo artists were also rather popular. Elvis continued his wildly successful career well into the 1960s and even into the 1970s. Newcomer Bob Dylan made a combination of folk music and rock, which also became a popular genre; he was also among the first artists to use his position as a rockstar for political commentary.


Elvis live in concert. Elvis had begun his career in the 1950s, and his sound was changing during the 1960s.


A spike in music made by African-Americans had also appeared, especially after a new record label had formed in Detroit. Groups such as The Temptations, The Supremes and The Jackson 5 became famous, and many solo artists also appeared, the most famous being Jimi Hendrix, Marvin Gaye, and Aretha Franklin, the former being considered to be the greatest guitarist of all time. The music made by African-Americans, however, soundly distinctly different from music composed by The Beatles; the term "R&B" was coined, and it continues to this day.


The Jackson 5 live in concert. The sound of African Americans' music was considerably different from that of The Beatles.


One other genre had also started appearing in America during the 1960s: a genre that was previously exclusive to Jamaica. The genre was called reggae, and it was completely different from what people had been listening to. Of the artists, Bob Marley became the most famous of these, and the genre he brought with him even spread to the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe.


One of the most famous events in all of music history also occurred in 1969: Woodstock. For three days "of peace and music", artists would play music continuously on a giant stage outside, and many came to watch it. The event had many famous rock stars, and although multiple "remakes" of Woodstock appeared years later, none of them have reached the same level of respect that the original has received.


One of the important themes that many artists focused on in the 1960s were themes of happiness and love; this was made in order to make everyone forget about what happened before in the 1950s, and before, as well as all "bad" events that had involved America, such as the depression and World War II. The economy was good, there seemed to be no chance of anything bad happening to America, things were getting better; everyone was happy, and they didn't want to be reminded about the grim past.


Regardless, the times still weren't completely happy-go-lucky. Segregation was turning into a huge problem, and some artists, such as Bob Dylan, used their position as artists to spread their ideas across America.


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An example of rock music in America during the 1960s. Song: I Get Around By The Beach Boys.


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An example of R&B music during the 1960s. Song: Respect by Aretha Franklin


"The Way We Lived" (A)


A Nation Becoming Divided. Again.


Though the common thought that the 1960s was a happy time of drugs and hippies, the reality is far bleaker. In reality, many events that were ocurring in American history during this time that were causing rifts between the conservative 1950s and the liberal 1960s. The Civil Rights Movement was one such example: there were many protests about having to keep segregation or start integration. The Nation was divided strongly over the issue, and in the 1960s, the African Americans began to fight back. Songs. Protest. Boycotts. Many other things. They did what they could to get equal rights. But without Martin Luther King Jr's dream, and Malcolm X's visions, they could not have won against the prejudice against them.


Another touchy topic of the time? The Vietnam War. The nation was divided over whether we should keep going to war, or whether we should merely pull out and forget that we ever took part. Many protests had occurred at this time, and in the end, we did pull out.


The most important thing that came out of this were the Hippies. Flatly put, they were basically the most pacificistic people you could ever meet. And, they were strongly liberal. They had completely different clothes from what the liberals wore. It was looser, more casual, it was colourful. And, the Hippies thought opposite of the liberals. African Americans and Caucasians should be equal. Vietnam War is a waste. Even their way of living was completely different from the liberals; they lived in communities, everything was shared, and, most importantly, drug use was suggested. LSD and marijuana proved to be the drugs of choice, and when the two were outlawed in 1970, the Hippie communities started to become less and less common, but they still live on, even to this day.


In the 1960s, some new ideas seemed to have came back from the grave. In the 1800s, the Lottery  was outlawed due to rampant cheating. They came back in the 1960s, and they stay to this day. The drug of choice for many hippies, LSD, was actually first produced and tested in the 1940s, but it wasn't until 20 years later were its psychedelic properties fully realized.


Music was dominante part of life. Many listened to the newer music that the 1960s brought, and many first started listening to rock music in the 1960s. For more about Music, check the respective section on this page.


Otherwise, the average day of a person in the 1960s would be the same as the day in the life of someone in the 2010s. The dress and problems are different, but the average day is still the same. Wake up, go to work, go back home and goof off.


Government & Politics (N)


     The 1960’s was a decade of progress. “Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.” These words were spoken by President John F. Kennedy at his inauguration in January 1961. This slogan inspired young idealists to join the Peace Corp and other organizations. Others optimistically believed that this country could become a land of equal opportunity. But this optimism was short lived. The civil rights movement was a major part of the 1960’s. Rallies and marches were led, challenging the legal system in regards with racial segregation and discrimination, especially in the southern states. The response was more than they expected. Television coverage showed beatings of the civil rights demonstrators. Newspapers reported the brutal murders of African Americans segregation and discrimination, especially in the southern states. The response was more than they expected. Television coverage showed beatings of the civil rights demonstrators. Newspapers reported the brutal murders of African people by the ‘white’ Americans. These happenings created public outrage amongst the general populous and most likely due to this, political support was ensured. And yet it took years for people to finally obtain the rights they were promised.


      At the end of World War II the U.S. had become the most powerful nation in the world. In his inaugural address President Kennedy spoke of the U.S.’s coming role in the world. He said “let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty.” But tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union were thick. In 1962 The Cuban Missile crisis almost brought the two countries to war, a nuclear war.


     Moreover, the threat of Communism in Southern Asia was pronounced. The American people weren’t overly concerned with overseas trouble, but the U.S. government was keen to help out and not let the hand of Communism go any farther. President Kennedy said the U.S. was there to “assure the survival and success of liberty.” But the American people were tired. They were tired of jumping from one war to another. They were tired of losing loved ones every day. And they were tired of fighting for things that had no relevance to them.


Leadership (A)


Two presidents ruled over America in the 1960s: John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.



The two presidents of the 1960s: John F. Kennedy, top, and Lyndon B. Johson,  bottom.


John F. Kennedy was the first of the two. Winning against Richard Nixon, Kennedy began his presidency at the start of the decade. His running mate, Johnson, helped him win the South while Kennedy focused on the North; the race was extremely close, however. Kennedy took office as a Democrat, and he left a huge impact on the public in his inauguration speech and his bright, charismatic personality. Everybody loved him. His presidency was somewhat of a mixed-bag, however; though Kennedy was very interested in foreign affairs, he didn't make as many attempts to work on domestic policies, so little occurred in America in his presidency. Whether he would've done better a little later is debatable; in 1963, 2 years in his presidency, JFK was shot dead in an assassination. A large amount of controversy still surrounds the shooting, but it didn't matter. JFK, who had left an imprint on the nation, was dead. The public mourned, and some people felt unfit for the days to come, some refusing to eat, and almost everyone remembers what they were doing when they first heard that Kennedy was dead.


JFK just minutes before his assassination.


After JFK, his vice president was sworn in as President on Texan soil. Response to Johnson has been mixed: some feel given his education, he did a rather good job (Johnson did not go to law school, and actually went to a sub-par college in Texas), but others feel that he was not ready to fill in the shoes of Kennedy. Johnson was poor at foreign affairs, but on the contrary, he was better at domestic affairs. America had changed quickly in Johnson's years, but the crisis in Vietnam was becoming worse and worse by the minute. Regardless, Johnson served two terms to the end of the 1960s, being succeeded by JFK's opponent, Richard Nixon. Nixon took oath in 1970.


Johnson takes the oath to office in Air Force One. His wife is standing to his right, and Kennedy's wife is standing to his left.



Law & Justice (N)


     This was an important era for the judiciary system of the government. For a long time, the Jim Crow laws ruled the south. These laws discriminated against African Americans, and basically any Americans that weren’t white. The “Jim Crow” era started in the late 1800s and ended in mid-1965. There were signs everywhere that quoted things like “whites only” or “no blacks allowed”. Famous civil rights activists, including Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, took a stand against racial discrimination. Why the double standard they asked. Weren’t black Americans human? Didn’t they fight in the wars to safeguard the country putting their lives on the line? Then why should they not get the same rights that white Americans had?


     On May 6, 1960 The Civil Rights Act was turned into a law. Not only that, it was enforced! Then another one was passed in 1964 demanding the desegregation of a public places, like restaurants and hotels. After that, a series of similar laws were passed disbanding the Jim Crow way of life. In 1967 the first black justice was appointed to the Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall. But the fight for equal rights didn’t end yet. Thurgood Marshall once said “The United States has been called the melting pot of the world. But it seems to me that the coloured man either missed getting into the pot or he got melted down."There was a long road ahead to obtain complete equality. But the first steps were being taken with the new laws that were implemented.     



Religion (K)

Religion was on the decline during the earlier part of this decade. People were referring to the decade as the “Death of God”, as public schools took out Bible reading and compulsory prayer in schools. The Protestant churches saw it as their role to bring faith into society. The Consultation on Church Union was formed to great a denomination of a large number of people. This church would support the common interests in society such as supporting the African American efforts in ending segregation in the south and checking the expanding of America’s role in the Vietnam War. Catholicism had come into great acceptance in the 1960s, as President John F Kennedy, elected in 1960 was the first Roman Catholic president. The Second Vatican Council made changes in the United States as the Mass was changed from Latin to English and how the priests stood on the altar. The Roman Catholic Church had come into dominance. The priests and nuns began to fight for issues such as birth control. The Morons were one of the fastest growing religious groups of the decade. The Nation of Islam which formed by Elijah Muhammad had attracted multitudes of repressed black Americans; the most famous of them being Malcom X, the infamous civil rights fighter. Religions from Asia such as the Hare Krishnas, who were a Hindu religious cult, had attracted few followers.





Positive Political Cartoon (K)

Published shortly after JFK's death. JFK is seen as a heroic figure who was unable to finish all of his long term goals.


Negative Political Cartoon (N)


A scathing political cartoon that was targeted at the segregation laws at the time. The hate against the African Americans was deemed in this cartoon to be as bad as slavery. The only difference between then and now is that the people are labeled differently: the slaves are now those who live in the ghetto, Simon (the slaveowner) was now a policeman who was allowed beat them for whatever reason, and the plantation owner is now a racist politician, allowing all of this to happen. These people of power and influence either allowed these atrocities to happen or took part in it.


MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America? (All)




      As stated before the 1960s was a time of great social, culture, economical, and political change. After World War II, there was baby boom. The baby boom generation was the reason for the drastic social change, as they wanted change after a rather conservative 1950s, recovering after war.  The African Americans had been fighting for racial equality since the beginning of the beginning of the 20th century. In 1909 the NAACP was one of the initial steps in the process of gaining racial equality. The early 1960s is most notable for the Civil Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement consisted of many protests led by the famous Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcom X. These men went through many extremes in their fight towards equality, including Martin Luther King Jr. being thrown in jail. Finally in the year 1964 the Civil Rights Act was passed and signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, which finally gave the African Americans racial equality in society as now they were finally equal to their white counterparts. The passing of the 1964 Civil Rights Act was very important because America had become united after years of segregation in the Jim Crow South.


     Another major event that happened during the 1960s was America’s landing on the moon. Even though the Soviet Union was the ones to reach space first, the US believed they could land on the moon before any nation in the world. The US had planned in the early 1960s to land on the moon before the end of the 60s, and before the Soviets had.  The date July 20, 1969 turned out to be a very important date in American’s and the world’s history, as the space flight Apollo 11, sent by the US, landed on the moon. This was a great victory for the United States in the world.


     The social change during the 60s had been very evident. As stated before, the baby boom generation was the reason for the drastic social change in culture. This brought forth a group consisting of youth called the Hippies. The Hippies found it difficult to adapt to the conservative lifestyle of the 50s, and they wanted a culture based on free love, loud music, and personal freedom. This type of culture was known as counterculture. It would be correct to guess that there was a lot conflict between the youth and the elders of the 50s because of the conflicting differences in lifestyles and beliefs, as the hippies wanted to be liberal and fully express themselves, whereas the elders weren’t not thrilled with the over expression of the newer generation. The music of the 60s was reflective of the culture, as the music was loud and very entertaining. The Beatles were probably the most popular music group during the 60s. For this reason the Beatles’s music is still played in cars and homes today. This shows how the music from the 60s is still prevalent in the 21st century, as rock n roll is still a major part of music today.  


      The youth also became more involved in the culture and events of the 60’s. During the Vietnam War, hundreds of college students stood outside their university picketing to end a war that should have never been ours to fight. Women were not to be left behind either. The feminist movement began around this time protesting the roles they were to play in society. In the picture of the American Dream, the head of the household, a man, works in a well to do job, while the children play with smiles on their faces. Where is the woman in this picture? She is in the kitchen cooking. Betty Friedan published a book called The Feminine Mystique challenging the age old role of women. Things were changing fast from the fight for equality, to breaking down religious barriers. Religion played a big role in presidential elections. Until this time, no Catholic president had ever been elected for office. This opportunity showed that the United States was ready for what the future held. The wars that were fought, the culture that we embraced, and the different movements bent on gaining equality, played a vital role in the U.S.’s progress in the 1960’s.



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