B4 1960s Gallagher

Sumana Prabhakar, Vyom Shah, Brian Lee



MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?


The 1960s



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Business & the Economy 

     The 1960s was a good decade for American business and economy. It was during this time that the U.S. experienced its longest uninterrupted period of economic growth in American history. The Housing and Computer industries grew large as the U.S. began to move away from the Automobile and Chemical industries, which it revolved around during the 50s. The decade was a good time for big businesses too. The top 5 industrial companies contributed more than 12 % to American assets in 1962. Investment in countries overseas improved during the mid-60s as well. 

     The economy faced a small rough patch as it entered a depression after the 1960 election. However, Kennedy promised to take action and decided to send congress an economic expansion/recovery package. This was mainly directed at the working class and it did a list of things to help them. A few of them were to:

Even after this, the economy was still in trouble and Kennedy provided more help by issuing a tax cut. He realized that the decreased taxes would help the businesses the most.

      Unfortunately, Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 and Lyndon B. Johnson took over soon after. The inflation in this year was stable and profits for big businesses were very high. A good economic status was passed down from Kennedy to Johnson and during Johnson's term, JFK's wish for an unemployment rate of 4% or lower was accomplished and maintained pretty well. Overall, the decade proved to be helpful for the economy and by then end, real income had increased by fifty percent and the median family income had risen as well.



     At first education in the 1960s wasn’t that great. People began to understand that there weren’t enough educated Americans able to meet and progress the advanced technologies of the time. John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson recognized this deficiency and so constantly lobbied to congress for increased federal aid to the education system. Many conservative politicians opposed this because they believed the government shouldn’t be involved in the education system, but both Kennedy and Johnson continued to struggle for government aid and the education policy became a very fiercely debated topic.

     During this time there was heavy reform for the education system. The “old way” was changing into the “new way,” where schools would teach their students the struggles of the blacks and the Native Americans and also made education less segregated. Reforms also expanded study in the sociology and other extra curriculums such as drama and the arts. Not only this, but the federal government also poured a lot more money into the education system than before; from 1.8 billion dollars to more than 12 billion dollars.

     Finally, during this time the military also had a big impact on education. During the 1960s the Vietnam War was going on and young American males began to face the draft. To avoid the draft these young American males enrolled into college straight after high school thereby leaving all the uneducated who were too poor to afford college to enroll in the draft. Military officials did not like this and to solve the problem the military spent millions of dollars on educating its soldiers.



     The 1960s was a decade of fashion uprising. Many new styles that were considered “scandalous” in earlier times were created. The main theme of the clothes during this time was colorfulness.  However at the beginning of the 1960s, the clothes were mainly dull and were more suited for older people. Little shops called boutiques began selling cheap and colorful clothing and the trend caught on. During this time many new types of clothing and styles were started that we still use till this day.

     Probably one of the most prominent is the mini skirt. It was originally designed by Mary Quant in 1963 who also sold many other sixties fashion items such as bright colored tights and vinyl clothing. Some other styles that continue even to this day are leather boots and fake eyelashes. During the 1960s, pantyhose were also introduced. The introduction of the pantyhose was also very important to the mini skirt since women found the short skirts to be less inappropriate when worn with pantyhose. Pantyhose effectively replaced stockings.

                                                                        1960's Mod Black Vinyl Vest/jacket Dress-M


The Miniskirt                                                                                                                              An example of Vintage Clothing

    The fashion for men also drastically changed during this time. During the 1960s the most popular band was the Beatles. They were famous all over the world. They also had a great influence on the fashion of the time. Men began to wear “Beatle Suits”. These were suits that had a single breasted collarless jacket and skinny pants. Men also began growing out their hair and dressing more formally in 1966. 



"Beatle Suits"                                                                                                                                            An example of men's hairstyles 




Film and Theater 

     The 1960s were a bad time for the film industry. During the sixties, major studies chose to support many domestic independent films. In addition many movies that were intended for television were run in the movie theaters. Many films also attempted to film abroad in an effort to save money. The average budget of a film was more than one million dollars and yet the price of a ticket to see the film was less than a dollar. Because of this the film industry went deep into debt. Many studios began selling their backlots (an empty space behind a theater set aside for building or to be used as sets) and props to make ends meet. A few studios were also bought by larger multinational companies. During this decade is also when the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created. They embedded bronze stars into pink squares onto the sidewalks with different actors names on them. This was mainly created to attract tourists and earn a little money. In 1963, the first multiplex theater was created by Stanley Durwood and consisted of two theaters next to each other and seven hundred seats.

     Even with all the financial difficulties of the film industry in the 1960s, many classic movies were produced at this time. The Sound of Music was released in 1965 and was one of the most successful movies of all time. It is about a woman who is working towards being a nun named Maria. The reverend mother decides that she is not cut out to be a nun and says she should go work at as a governess at the Von Trapp household. The father is a very patriotic Austrian and he has seven children. The movie is about the change that Maria creates in this very strict family. It also shows the reign of the Nazi soldiers when they took over Austria. Another famous movie that was created during this decade is the horror film Psycho that was made in 1960. It is about a man with multiple personality disorder and thinks that he is also his mother. Because of this, he believes that his "mother" would get jealous if he liked another girl so he kills any woman he feels an attraction towards. Both movies became very famous and are still very well known to this day.

      “By the end of the decade, the film industry was very troubled and depressed and experiencing an all-time low that had been developing for almost 25 years.” (www.filmsite.org)


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Food & Drink

     The 1960s was a lot like our time right now. During this time, a lot of fast food chains that we know of were being made. For example, the first Wendy’s was made in 1969. Many of these fast food chains were being made due to the baby boomers and their “large expendable income.” (Royal Tiki) Also, there was the introduction of canned foods. These foods were easy to prepare and very cheap. These canned foods were growing in popularity because of the growing popularity of TV.

The fine dining foods are actually pretty similar to ours currently. As a starter there would be freshly baked bread with a side of butter and cheese. For the main course there would be a nice fine sirloin steak with a few cooked mushrooms and lettuce on the side.





Print Culture

     The 60s was a great decade for literature as it inspired many great people to think. The environment produced by the decade for many people in America provoked many different thought processes. So, in effect, many new viewpoints on different matters were born and the world of philosophy went through an expansion as well. A special theme found in the thoughts of people during this era was one of “rebellion”. During this era, a large sector of the youth began questioning the rules imposed on them as well as the decisions made by the slightly older generation in terms of politics and government.


     Many great classics were produced by great writers during the 60s. A few examples would be In Cold Blood by Truman Capote and Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut.  Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak and The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger were also produced in this era as the children's books genre experienced an expansion in popularity as well.


     Genres outside of the context of conventional literature grew as well. Magazines and Comic books gained much popularity in the 60s among all age groups. The Rolling Stone was released in 1967 as a magazine for music lovers and it is still in publication today. It has since acted as a great advocate for the world of rock and roll music. The world of comic books grew as well with the first appearance of Spider-Man in 1962. The famous crime-fighting, teenage superhero was created by Stan Lee. After being bitten by a radioactive spider, he goes on to fight for money until his uncle dies because of a criminal he failed to apprehend. Then, Peter Parker learns that “with great power comes great responsibility” and dedicates the rest of his life to fighting crime. Spider-Man still appears in comics and movies today and is considered one of the most well known superheroes of all time.



Sports &  Games


     During this time, baseball was considered as America's greatest sport. It started with Roger Maris beating the legendary record of Babe Ruth's 60 homeruns in one season and only continued to grow with the wining of the New York Mets in the World Series. However, football began to gather the attention of many Americans and grew in fame. To add on to this the Super Bowl, which combined the NFL and AFL, was introduced and helped even further boost national attention. Finally, in the 3rd Super Bowl, here the underdogs, the New York Jets defeated the much favored Baltimore Celtics and the nation went crazy. This was a huge, pivotal moment in the growth and fame of football.

     However, in the 1960s basketball was still far behind football and baseball and the introduction of the American Basketball Association (ABA) with the already established National Basketball Association (NBA), basketball’s fame was even further decreased. However, college basketball and football was another story. College basketball and football was very popular with hundreds of thousands of fans cheering on their favorite teams.

     One of the most influential athletic stars of the time was boxer, Muhammad Ali who won the Olympic Gold in 1960. However, as the war in Vietnam progressed, he refused to be drafted into the US Military saying that he believes any kind of killing for any reason is morally wrong. He said that he, “Ain't got no quarrel with the Viet Cong." However this astounding comment by such a famous figure was just unheard of. For an athlete like him, he needed to support the government, not oppose it. So, due to this quote and because he was black, he was stripped of his title and banned from the boxing world. This was one of the largest controversies in the sporting world.

     However, during this time, there was a growing of cynicism in the sporting world. If you weren’t the winner, you were nothing. As Vince Lombardia said, “Winning is not everything, it is the only thing.”  The only way for endorsers and sponsors to gain any recognition was to put their brands on only the athletes that win. And as the necessity to win became even greater, the length that athletes would go to win became even greater. This lead to an increase in drugs, such as steroids and painkillers.  Gambling became an even greater deal now that gamblers could have an even greater chance to win, this lead to corruption in the game.




     The 1960s produced many famous styles of music. Although, the decade was probably one of the best eras of Rock as it was the most popular style of music among all age groups. Even then, "Rock" was a very ambiguous term and it had many it led to the birth of many "sub-genres" such as Hard Rock, Soft Rock, Folk, Blues Rock, Pop Rock, etc. At the forefront of all these genres were these three artists: Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and of course, the Beatles. Their music was loved by many back then and it continues to influence many musicians even today.


Jimi Hendrix

       Hailing from the city of Seattle, Washington, James Marshall (Jimi) Hendrix was arguably one of the most famous guitar players ever. He came from a rather humble beginning and began playing blues music with a cheap acoustic guitar that his father gifted him at a young age. After a life of crime, he joined the army but soon left.  When his career as a guitar player kicked off, it didn't take long for him to reach fame on unimaginable levels. Jimi was probably one of the most "unique" players you could find at the time. He had many small quirks that made him the legend he is today. Hendrix was a left handed player and since left handed guitars were a rarity at the time, he chose to simply string a regular guitar backwards. Another factor that clearly placed him above the others was his amazing showmanship and skill at the guitar. At shows, Jimi would perform stunts that could make any other guitarist dizzy. He would play with his teeth or behind his head without ever missing a note. One night, he even decided to smash his guitar to smithereens and set it alight in front of an awestruck crowd. Unfortunately, Hendrix's life was short lived and after performing the famous instrumental of "The Star-Spangled Banner" at Woodstock in 1969, Jimi passed away in his hotel room on September 18, 1980. Contrary to popular belief, Hendrix did not die of a drug overdose, but instead of asphyxiation.




Janis Joplin

     Janis Joplin was the driving force behind the entire idea of "rebellion" and "freedom" during the 1960s. These two ideas were the central philosophies that supported the hippie subculture that was produced by the decade. Joplin was an idol for young people everywhere. She sported the saying "let it all hang out" and encouraged people to do things they love in excess. Since this occurred during the 1960s, this almost always meant drinking, smoking drugs, and having sex. Joplin was an outcast as a teenager and she ran away from home at seventeen and began her career as a vocalist soon after. in 1966, she joined a rock group called "Big Brother and the Holding Company" and Joplin's wild performances earned them a spot at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 (where Hendrix also burned his guitar). Their album Cheap Thrills which was released not long after their appearance at Monterey sold exceptionally well due to Joplin's lifestyle. This was proved to be true when Janis changed bands and the fame followed her. Many of Janis's fans were concerned about the state of her vocal chords due to her aggressive singing style but she believed that singing at the apex of her ability now is better than singing at a mediocre level for her whole life. Unfortunately, her "whole life" wasn't very long and she died due to a heroin overdoes at age 27 in 1970. Her death was a wake up call for many of her fans as they finally realized the importance of moderation. 



The Beatles

     Without a doubt, the Beatles were one of the most famous groups of musicians the world has ever produced. “Beatlemania” as it was called, was the result of the band’s popularity exploding among the people of U.S.A. and various countries throughout Europe.

     The band came together when the two stars –John Lennon, and Paul McCartney –met in their hometown of Liverpool in 1960. The fact that these two were one of the best singers/songwriters in the history of modern music can be accredited for their swift rise to fame a mere two years after the birth of the group. Although these two musicians were astoundingly great in their own accord, they would face much conflict later as they constantly argued over who would get to write more songs and own rights. This would eventually lead to the sudden breakup of the band in 1970, ending their impressive 10 year career.

     The Beatles were at the forefront of the “British Invasion” of America when they first entered the U.S. in 1964. They were greeted with a warm welcome as they stepped off an airplane to the pleasing cheer of a large group of raving fans.  McCartney and Lennon were famous for creating a new style of music which artistically combined the rhythm of rock and roll and the soul and emotion usually found in blues. After creating 4 great albums, the band began experimenting with LSD. This led to the creation of Revolver and Rubber Soul. The group also faced a fork in the road at this point as Lennon and McCartney began to deviate from each other in terms of writing styles. As the feeling of internal conflict increased, the Beatles made one last statement with, what some people consider their greatest album, Abbey Road in 1969 and finally went their separate ways a year later.




"The Way We Lived"

The Civil Rights Movement

     During the 1960's, America was still a segregated country. In the 1960's there was a growing movement for African American's to gain their civil rights. Many leaders emerged during this time. Martin Luther King Junior is one of the most famous Civil Rights Movement leaders. He began a non violent campaign against the injustice that African Americans were facing. He preferred boycotting and protests to violent uprisings, however, because of this he was arrested twenty five times. His speeches and movements were so widely known that in 1963 he was named Time Magazine's Man of the Year. Malcolm X was another Civil Rights Movement leader. However he and Martin Luther King Junior had some differences. Malcolm X chose to show his beliefs through more violent means. Malcolm X also served jail time. Because these two men stood up for something that not everyone believed in, they did receive a some hate from others. This was later evident when both Martin Luther King Junior and Malcolm X were assassinated. Martin Luther King Junior was assassinated on April 4th, 1968 and Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21st 1965.




     The word "hippie" is taken from the word hipster which was used to describe a beatnik. These were people who thought out side of the box. They were known for their disdain of the traditional ways and their other ways of thinking. Hippies did everything that was outside of the mainstream including music, literature, philosophy, and many even took drugs. They were recognized for their colorful clothing and heavy intake of the drug marijuana. The hippie era slowly faded away however there are still some traces of it today as displayed in some of our clothing and ways of thinking. 



     The lottery was created to attract those who were known to try to get rich quickly and with little effort. During the 1960's the lottery attracted many people. Lotteries were initially introduced in the 1800's but was banned because of people fixing them. In the middle of the 1960's, the lottery began to make a comeback beginning in New York and New Hampshire.

There are many different opinions of the lottery. Some believe that is helping each state because the money collected helps fund the companies who help run the lottery. Others believe that it just makes those who are poor, poorer. "Americans seem likely to continue their love-hate relationship with lotteries." (Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America).





      The Mafia gained its roots in Sicily and Italy. It gradually arrived in America when many people began immigrating in the 1880's. Mafia activity grew during the Prohibition when alcohol was banned from consumption. Many mafia members began supplying liquor secretly and received a lot of money. The 1969 book, The Godfather was based off of a Mafia family. It resulted into the making of three movies and is still very famous to this day.


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Many movies and television shows have imitated The Godfather. This is one version from the movie Shark Tales. 




     Marijuana is the dried leaves of the hemp plant or Cannabis sativa. It gives a mildly intoxicating effect for which many people smoke it for. With the rise of "hippies", marijuana played an important role in the culture of the sixties. Today, the use of marijuana is illegal however, there is a growing movement to make legalize it because it has been reported to be effective in easing the discomfort patients of glaucoma, AIDS, and cancer feel. It is estimated that about one third of the U.S. population under the age of eleven has smoked marijuana at least once. 


Martial Arts

     Martial Arts refer to the style of fighting from the Eastern regions. There are many types of martial arts, some of the most popular are karate, aikido, ju-jitsu, judo, kung-fu, tai chi, and tae kwan do. Some of these styles even include the use of weaponry such as swords, throwing stars, and short clubs. Martial Arts schools first began to open in America in the 1950's. Their popularity increased in the 1960's during the "spy craze". During the 1960's many James Bond films were released which often demonstrated martial arts. Following this, many movies and television shows came out with the theme of martial arts. Many of these movies and shows are still very popular today. 




National Organization for Women

     The National Organization for Women or NOW was one of the major groups in the women's movement in America during the sixties. They publicly advertised for giving women equal rights and petitioned for legislations.


The best selling book in 1963 was The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan. It specifically touched on the key points of the women's movement and the problems that the women of America faced in society. Betty Friedan later became the first president of NOW. 

Government & Politics

     This era, during the 1960s, was one of the most shaky and chaotic times in the history of American government. The decade started off with the hope of a new president, John F. Kennedy, to turn this nation around into an era of prosperity. However, this was far from what happened. America faced many problems, both domestic and foreign. During this time the Cuban Missile Crisis was going on with the threat of Cuba nuking America. Some Americans thought that nuclear proliferation was inevitable with more and more nukes being made every day and tensions between the US and Russia becoming even more strained. Not only this, but the Vietnam War was also going on. However, these were only foreign problems. America had many domestic problems as well. African Americans were struggling for their equal rights and were met with violence from the South. Now to finally top it all off, John F. Kennedy was assassinated causing fear and chaos.  

            This left Vice President Lyndon Johnson in charge. While, Johnson had great dreams of making a great nation without poverty, his policies weren’t effective and did little to help the poor. Johnson had even less experience dealing with foreign affairs. Johnson sent more troops to Vietnam hoping to stop the spread of communism, but the soldiers didn’t seem to have much effect and now even more people were protesting the war in Vietnam. There was so much protesting that police were sometimes forced to use tear gas and clubs to handle all of the protestors.  The nation was split in half between the people who wanted to go to war in Vietnam and the anti-war people.

The huge fire of chaos was even further fanned with North Korea Communists successively a US Navy Freighter, and the Vietcong attacking more viciously voicing that they weren’t going to go down easily. The Vietcong were winning and many of the people in the US wanted their soldiers to come back home giving the Vietcong an even easier victory. Finally, to add gasoline to this fire of chaos, famous figures, Martin Luther King Jr., and Robert Kennedy were assassinated. 




     Dwight D. Eisenhower was the 34th president of the United States and served from 1953 to 1961. He was the president of the time when the Korean war was happening. He was a very direct strong president. He threatened China in using nuclear bombs against them and got the Chinese to agree to a ceasefire in Korea. He was very steadfast and held constant pressure against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. He continued the pressure by further promoting the space race.

     John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States and served from 1961 until 1963 when he was assassinated.  At first, the public didn't have much confidence in Kennedy when he was running for presidency. However, after the very first televised presidential debate, he showed confidence and leadership whereas Nixon was nervous and stuttering. During his presidency Kennedy did many things. During the Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy helped resolve the whole problem by enforcing economic sanctions. During this time, Kennedy was a very popular figure. He continued gaining popularity by telling the whole nation that they would put a man on the moon before the end of the decade, before the Soviet Union did. This bold statement gave him even more popularity. In 1962, John F. Kennedy actually met with Martin Luther King Jr. talking about how they were going to make the first Civil Rights Law that would finally give the African Americans their equal rights. While Kennedy was never alive to see all of his dreams happen they nevertheless happened.

      Martin Luther King Jr. as we all know was one of the most influential black and non-black leaders of all time. Through his use of his amazing language and public speaking skills he was able to portray the emotions and feelings of the Black community. King, at the age of 35, was the youngest person ever to receive the Nobel Peace Prize and with the prize money he helped further support the Civil Rights Movement. He was an amazing symbolic leader of African Americans. However on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated.



Law & Justice

    The 1960s was a very important era for many legal and judicial issues, especially those pertaining to civil rights. There was much conflict between both sides of the controversial matter at the time and there were many violent incidents and riots that resulted in the deaths of many people. During the decade, before the Civil Rights Act was finally passed, segregation was not uncommon in USA. In fact, almost every public location had a “blacks” and “white” section with the latter usually being the more sanitary and maintained place.

     The police force was considered a racist and power hungry sector of law enforcement by many. Police officers all over the country would discriminate against minorities and abuse them both verbally and physically. The police forces would also handle riots and other unhappy crows by using violent riot control tactics that would seem purely inhumane if employed today.

     To react to this, the local law enforcement departments amended their modi operandi (methods of operation) by doing a few things. They improved communication between officers and minority citizens, tried to hire more African Americans and women into the police force, and finally, established policies that gave very strict warnings about when to not use force and violence. In fact, after the Supreme Court discovered that the 5th and 6th amendment rights of Ernesto Arturo Miranda had been violated during an arrest for the suspicion of rape and kidnapping, the Miranda warning was introduced and it is still mandatory for use today by members of the police force.




     The beginning half of the twentieth century was very successful for Protestant Christians. Protestant Christianity almost completely dominated the religion of Americans. During this time there were still a few Catholics and Jews but not nearly as many as there were Christians. Protestant Christianity was so popular that it was referred to as "American Religion". However this all changed in the sixties. 

     Some people referred to this period as "The 1960's Revolution". During this time, many new ideas arose causing people to doubt the traditional way of things. The three divisions: Protestant Christians, Catholics, and Jews no longer represented the view points of everyone. Many new spiritualities and practices were created during this time. Those born during the 1960's are known as "Baby Boomers". It was estimated that only twenty five percent of the "Baby Boomers" returned to their church. This was often called the "Death of God". Public schools no longer required Bible reading or prayer during the day. Many nuns and priests left their churches to lead non-religious lives.

     "In 1957, 14 percent of the Americans polled said religion was in decline in the United States. In 1970 that figure had increased to 75 percent." (http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3468302443/1960s-religion-overview.html)   





Positive Political Cartoon

Birth of Kennedy 


Negative Political Cartoon

Civil Rights Protest in Rhodesia & Alabama


MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?


     World War II was a global military conflict which affected almost every country in the world. It is considered to be “deadliest conflict in human history”. The death toll reached over seventy two million. One of the most active participants in the war was America and the war really affected the country. The culture, events and leadership reflected the ideals that were created by the war. The culture was transformed into a more carefree society. The events also became more daring and risk taking. The value of leadership increased greatly after the war, many great leaders arose in the post World War II era. Overall, World War II affected the lives of Americans to a great extent.

     The culture of the post World War II years greatly represented the general feeling of the people during this time period. After the war, many people were filled with the hope that another war like the world war would never happen again. The hippie culture emerged as a way of easy living and not worrying about society. These hippies would frequently break social norms. Another trend that grew in the sixties was the smiley face sign. Smiley faces were printed on everything from shirts to tattoos. They became so popular that the sixties were also referred to as “The Decade of the Smiley Face”.  This also represents the happiness that people felt after the end of World War II. The clothing could also be seen as reflecting the joy of the people during this decade. All clothing was bright colored with “psychedelic” patterns. During this time many of the television shows created were more care free and humorous. Some examples are The Brady Bunch, I Dream of Genie, Monty Python’s Flying Circus, Gilligan’s Island, and The Benny Hill Show. The happy feelings of the people were also reflected in their ambitions. Their victory in World War II made them want to reach new heights. Therefore in 1969, America sent the first men to the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. Overall, the good mind-set of the people after World War II was reflected in the culture. However, there were some exceptions. Because of the death toll in World War II, many people were not looking forward to another war. Consequently, when the issue of the Vietnam War came to America many people were very opposed to American involvement. So many people were against the fighting in Vietnam, that there were many riots and protests demonstrating people’s distaste for another war. Overall, there were many different reactions after World War II.

     The 1960s was a very active decade and many famous events took place all over the world. In 1960, the American nation first got wind of the Kennedy’s power when Senator John F. Kennedy destroyed an unnerved Nixon during the first televised presidential debate. The next year, Kennedy was elected president and he moved into the white house. He delivered his famous “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country” speech at the inauguration. In 1961, Kennedy also promised the American people that he would have a man on the moon and back within a decade. 1962 wasn’t too great of a decade. However, it held the first recorded warning of pollution due to a popular insecticide called DDT. It was banned in 5 states not long after. ’63 was a great year for civil rights. It was when Martin Luther King first delivered his famous “I have a dream” speech and when President Kennedy was assassinated. Both 1964 and 1965 were important years for the hippie culture. The Beatles gained much popularity in ’64 and Johnson’s decision to bomb North Vietnam sparked the war protest in America. After a rather uneventful 1966, Medicine made a huge leap in 1967 when the first heart transplant was performed by Dr. Christiaan Barnard. Both 1968 and 1969 were, once again, Critical years for the development of the Hippie Subculture. 1968 was the year when both Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy (JFK’s brother and another strong supporter of civil rights) were murdered. The first black woman was elected to congress in 1968 also. In 1969, the famous Woodstock music festival was held and many famous artists performed. Finally, on July 20, 1969, former President Kennedy’s promise finally came true as the U.S. successfully landed Apollo 11 on the moon. Neil Armstrong took his first steps on the moon as he successfully took “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

     Leadership led a very important role in reflecting post-WWII America. Through various leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr., and John F. Kennedy, their actions helped shape and reflect post-WWII America. John F. Kennedy was a very famous and influential man. He solved the Cuban Missile Crisis, and tried to help solve the situation in Vietnam. Because of him, post WWII was shaped into what we have now. If Kennedy hadn’t solved the Cuban Missile Crisis then there might not even have been an America. The Soviet Union and America were on the verge of nuclear proliferation and with the nuclear weapon that we had already made at the time, it could have easily destroyed both nations. Martin Luther King Jr. was also another very famous and influential leader. His speeches and influence helped for the betterment of the African Americans. If he was never here or decided to never go through all of his struggles and fights for the rights of black people we could still very well have racial segregation. His work greatly helped shape the post-WWII era. America right now is known as a country of free will and rights without any segregation. This is because of leaders like Martin Luther King Jr., and others. If he and others were never alive then America wouldn’t be what it is known for right now.

     Culture, various events and leadership helped influence and shape the post-WWII era. All the struggles, fights and movements that happened vastly helped the chaotic times.  Through these events, such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the first human landing on the moon and the influence of culture and leadership, the 1960s made the nation what it is now. A nation without segregation, a nation with free will and a nation where the people are the rulers.





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