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B4 1960s Convery

Page history last edited by Carson White 9 years, 12 months ago

Jenna MacDonald

Sarah Wagner

Carson White

Taryn Lintol

 

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

The Groovy 60's-Decade of Peace and Love

 

  

  

Business & the Economy- Jenna

     The 1960's was a big boom period for different kinds of industries. Overall, the amount of people in the work force decreasde, but throughout the 1960’s participation in unions increased overall. In the early 60's and before, unions bagan to gain more power, but near the end of the decade, these unions began to loose their powerful influence over the various companies.

    

      In 1962, the Dow suffered it’s worst year ever- besides the Great Depression. From here on though, the market rose rapidly until 1966. In January of 1966, it reached just over 1,000 points. At this time, not many Americans knew about the stock market, so many used mutual funds when they invested. 

 

     During this time period, different industries were advancing faster than others. Franchising and the electronics companies became more popular and profitable. Electronics became the 5th most profitable industry as televisions, radios, stereos and household appliances became more and more popular. Computers also began to gain popularity, and IBM became the biggest computer industry in the United States, with seven much smaller competitors. 

 

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Example of Advertising on Television 

 

Education- Sarah 

     During their respective presidencies, both John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson were in favor of the federal government beginning to play a bigger role in education. They began to fund public schools and created numerous programs. Despite the controversy surrounding the topic, the federal government would not fund private schools.

 

     Schools had only begun the desegregation process two years before the 1960’s began. Even though more African Americans were attending previously all-white schools, there were still people opposed to racial integration. Some schools attempted to avoid desegregation, so the government passed the Civil Rights Act in 1964, which stated that schools could have their funding revoked if they did not integrate. Very soon after, the number of still-segregated schools dropped dramatically.

 

     The diversity of America began to be recognized more in schools. The history of African American and Native American struggles were added to schools’ curriculums, as well as foreign language programs that were demanded by immigrants who were beginning to feel that their native cultures were slipping away.

 

     Due to the Vietnam War, a draft was put into affect in 1968. In an attempt to escape the draft, many young men enrolled into college straight out of high school. However, this meant that an increasing amount of the men who were effectively drafted into the war were only there because they could not afford the cost of college. The government recognized this problem and created an educational system that could be accessed through the military.

 

Fashion- Carson

     The 1960s was a time of transition for the country, and this was reflected in the fashion of the decade. Style began to move away from the conservative looks of Jacqueline Kennedy, and towards a freer spirited look. After the U.S. victory of WWII, there was a sense of confidence in the U.S. people which was a result of being one of the most powerful countries in the world. The postwar years in the United States were prosperous, and many Americans enjoyed a greater financial security that they had never before imagined. Materialism continued to grow as a result of a strong economy. People had money and they wanted to spend it. In 1964 the “mod” look became popular in America; it had already been very successful in London and the surrounding areas since in late 1950s. The mod look resulted in a wardrobe expressly for the younger generation that included mini-skirts, brightly colored shift dresses, dark eye makeup, and wild ties, blouses, and stockings. Even men became more fashionable. They strayed away from the basic grey flannel suits and buzz cut, and more towards the wilder patterns and new colors. Long hair was also in style. Pants were probably the biggest fashion revolution of the decade for women. In the 1960s designers began to introduce more high- fashion pant styles, instead of the usual sports and at home fashions. The hippies were one of the largest and important influences in the 1960s, spreading the ideas of “antifashion.” In the first half of the 1960s, many styles in traditional fashion had been challenged; such as, women’s pants. But, “antifashion” and the hippie movement challenged any type of fashion whatsoever, traditional or not. Fashion was viewed as a suspicious alignment with establishment materialism and moral failing. Secondhand clothing, dirty T-shirts, unkempt hair, torn blue jeans, and costumes borrowed from ethnic, non-Western cultures (assumed to be less corrupt) became the alternatives to young generations. The 1960s was a big decade for fashion as a whole; both women and men were testing boundaries and pushing limits to create some of the most valued designs in history.

                                                          

 

 

 

 

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Fashion Video

 

 

Film and theater- Jenna

      During the 1960’s, movies underwent a huge change. Movie producers had huge competition with the televison industries. Because of this, movie producers wanted to show things that television couldn’t, so movies became more centered on sex and violence. This had the opposite response that they had hoped. Families began going to the theaters less and less to see movies, and the movie industry suffered. 

 

     During this decade, many new movies cam out. The most popular movie at the time would have probably been the James Bond films. They were action-packed and exciting to watch. The movie Across the Universe, a Beatles' musical, came out in 2007. However, it was based on the 1960's, and is supposed to take place from 1965-1969.

 

    Theatre during the 60's wasn't exceptional huge. In fact, didn’t change very much at all. For the most part, the musicals reflected older styles of music from earlier decades. Some experimental plays were created, but overall, there was little change. Plays were becoming obsolete due to the newer movie industry.  

 

 

Food &  Drink- Taryn

     Casseroles from the 50s were old and boring, and the curious minds of many food savvy Americans encouraged complex, flashy food “with French influence, suburban devotion, vegetarian curiosity, and ethnic cuisine; the decade of flaming things and lots and lots of junk food” (Oliver, Lynne). With the clash of tradition and radical change, the 60s created a whole new perceptive of the culinary world throughout the decade. Signature dishes and popular trends from the era include Iceberg Wedge Salad, Fondue, Steak Diane, Beef Wellington, Swedish Meatballs, Buffalo Wings, Soul Food, Salad Bars, Howard Johnson’s, Surf and Turf, Japanese Steak Houses, Julia Child Recipes, Frieda Caplan influenced food, Tang, Bundt Cake, and Backyard Barbeques.

                                                                                                        

 

            Products new in the 1960s include anything from food product containers to famous fast food chains. Coffee Rich, aluminum cans used for food and beverages, Granny Smith apples introduced to the USA, Domino's Pizza, and single-serving ketchup packets were all created in 1960. 1961 was the beginning for Total (breakfast cereal, General Mills), Mrs. Butterworth's Syrup (Unilever), Green Giant frozen peas, Sprite (Coca Cola Company), Coffee-Mate (Carnation), Sylvia's restaurant (NYC), and Hardee's (fast food chain). The production of Frozen bread dough (Bridgford Foods Corp.), Pet-Ritz Frozen Pie Crusts, Diet-Rite Cola (Royal Crwon Cola), tab-opening aluminum cans for soft drinks, and Taco Bell (fast food chain) all occurred in 1962. 1963 was the year for Yakisoba (Nissin Foods), Tab (Cocoa Cola Company), Wundra (flour, General Mills), and Cremora (Borden). 1964 was a big year during the 1960s; it was the founding year for Pop-Tarts (Kellogg's), Buffalo Wings (Anchor Bar, Buffalo NY), Coca cola in cans,Ruffles potato chips, Lucky Charms (breakfast cereal,General Mills), Bugles, Whistles & Daisy*s (snack foods, General Mills), Chiffon Margarine and Seven Seas Salad Dressing (Anderson, Clayton & Co, now Kraft), Yoplait Yogurt, Awake (synthetic orange juice, General Foods), Maxim (freeze-dried instant coffee, General Foods), Carnation Instant Breakfast (Carnation Co.), and Instant mashed potatoes. The signature Shake 'n Bake (General Foods), Cool Whip (General Foods), Tang (General Foods), Rock Cornish game hens (Tyson), Apple Jacks (breakfast cereal, Kellogg), SpaghettiOs (Franco-American/Campbell Soup Co.), Cranapple Fruit Juice (Ocean Spray), Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi were all produced in 1965. Bac*Os (General Mills), Product 19 (breakfast cereal, Kellogg), $100,000 Bar (Nestle), Caravelle (candy bar, Peter Paul), Taster's Choice (freeze dried coffee, Nestle), Doritos, instant oatmeal, and Easy Cheese (Nabisco) were founded in 1966. 1967 was not a big year for product production, in fact the only big thing introduced was Taco Seasoning Mix (Lawry's). 1968, too, was a slow year with the only large products being Red Lobster (chain restaurant), and Legal Seafoods (chain restaurant). 1969 was a little more productive with the introduction to Chunky Soups (Campbell's), Kaboom (breakfast cereal, General Mills), Frosted Mini-Wheats (breakfast cereal, Kellogg), Chipos (snack food, General Mills), Pringles (potato snacks, Proctor & Gamble), Wendy's (chain restaurant), and Long John Silver's Fish 'n Chips (chain restaurant). (Oliver, Lynne)

 

 

 

 

Print Culture- Carson

     American literature was very popular in the 1960s, fueled by a culture that valued young minds, and young thinkers that questioned the values of adults. Many novels that are still popular today were written in the 1960s. These novels include many best sellers such as; Slaughterhouse Five (1969), In Cold Blood (1966). James Bond novels by Ian Fleming (1908–1964) also gained popularity through out the decade. Science fiction also grew. Stranger in a Strange Land (1961) was the first science fiction novel to make the New York Times Best sellers list. Catcher in the Rye (1951) by J.D. Salinger came out as a book to mark adolescence in America and was taught in schools across America. This novel also became a basis for many other popular novels in the 1960s, such as The Outsiders. There were many transitions in the magazine industry at the time also. Many magazines had suffered slightly because of the sudden interest in television. The Saturday Evening Post which was once known as an essential American magazine closed in 1969, marking the end to the era of the general magazine. However, many newer magazines thrived, such as Rolling Stone in 1969. Comic books were still very popular among Americans. Marvel Comics created Spider Man in 1962.

 

                                                       

    

 

Sports &  Games- Sarah

     Baseball had always been America’s pastime, but other sports were quickly catching up. The first three Super Bowls took place from 1967-69, greatly increasing the popularity of the sport. Other sports that were becoming more popular included basketball, hockey, and NASCAR. The ability to televise these sports increased the entertainment value and made the games more exciting. There were a total of three Olympic Games throughout the 1960’s.

 

     Muhammad Ali, who won the gold medal in the 1960 Olympic Games, refused to participate in any type of military activity, then joined the Nation of Islam and released a statement saying that he “ain't got no quarrel with the Viet Cong."  This outlandish behavior caused him to be banned him from boxing in 1967. Three years later, he was allowed back into the sport.

 

 

 

Music- Sarah 

     The biggest musical event of the 1960s was, by far, the Woodstock Music and Arts Fair, more commonly known by it’s shortened name- Woodstock. The festival brought out over 500,000 people and, even though it began as an organized event, all structure was soon forgotten. The people who hosted the festival gave up on charging admission and the police didn’t bother arresting those who were in possession of marijuana, though they did arrest 80 of those in attendance who had more serious drugs. Woodstock has lived on one of the largest rock concerts of all time.

 

     Jimi Hendrix is known as one of the most influential people in the rock music world throughout all of history. Hendrix took his performances to a level that had not been seen before by doing things such as “playing his guitar with his teeth, behind his back, and between his legs” and setting his guitar on fire at the end of his shows (Henderson). Hendrix was one of the headlining performers at Woodstock, breaking the barrier for blacks in the rock music world. Jimi Hendrix was found dead on September 18, 1970, due to an overdose. Even though Hendrix’s musical career lasted for a shorter amount of time then most, he still managed to create a new meaning for the term “rockstar.” 

 

     The Beatles were a very influential group that rose to fame throughout the 1960s. The British rock band became extremely popular in the United States, and during the month of April of 1964 they held all of the top five spots on Billboard’s top 100. The Beatles also made many full-length films, some of which provided insight into the band’s dynamic. As the end of the 1960s came, the band started growing apart, though they continued to release best-selling albums. Soon after the end of the 1960s, each of the four members had gone into their own side-projects. 

 

 

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"The Way We Lived"- Taryn

     The 1960s was a time of change and self-expression; people had opinions, expressed them and wanted to do something about it all. Many movements occurred in the sixties, such as the civil rights movement, women’s liberation movement, gay’s liberation movement, antiwar movement, and the youth movement. Each participant of each movement transformed their life around that movement, they did as much as they could and worked constantly for what they believed needed to be changed. Events like riots, rebellion, protests, violence, boycotts, marches, etc. (1960s: The Way We Lived)

           

                                                                                                                          

 

     Men were called to the draft to fight in the Vietnam War and women were assumed to stay at home and continue their life being homemakers, where some women were forced to take care of the house and get a job. Women were only capable of getting a job outside of the house because their determination for civil rights and equality. Children during this time were very rebellious, they did what they wanted to and when they wanted to do it. Some of the youth even took to the extreme of dropping out of school and becoming “hippies.” (1960s: The Way We Lived)

 

 

 

Government & Politics- Taryn

     President F. Kenned, in his inauguration, said "Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country," (The 1960s: Government and Politics: Overview) and this statement created many varying consequences that concerned activism and participation from criticism in the government. As the decade wore on, President Kennedy, civil rights leader Doctor Martin Luther King, and Senator Robert Kennedy were all assassinated leaving the nation questioning its own character. The result of these death concerned the nation was tired of aggression and dispute. The World War II left the United States as one of the most militarily and economically powerful nations in the world; the United States was then identified as the leader of the “free world.” (The 1960s: Government and Politics: Overview)

 

                                                                                        

           

     The Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 resulted in the United and the Soviet Union’s tension relieved slightly; this meant that the chance for war was still possible but not inevitable. President Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969) and President Richard Nixon (1969-1974) continued containment, put in place by President Dwight Eisenhower from 1952 to 1961, called for America’s policy of global activism o be questioned. The passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rihts Act of 1965 came the lack of white supremacy and legal set-backs. By the mids 1960s, President Kennedy had managed to better the US ecnomy to its strongest since 1945. The economy had an unemployment rate at 4 percent, a low inflation.

 

 

Leadership- Sarah

     Then the Democratic presidential candidate, John F. Kennedy ran his 1960 campaign with the idea of a "new generation of leadership—new men to cope with new problems and new opportunities." Kennedy’s main objective was to create the New Frontier, which “called for advancing ‘the civil and economic rights essential to the human dignity of all men,’ raising the minimum wage, guaranteeing equal pay for women, rebuilding the inner cities, increasing federal aid for education, initiating a PEACE CORPS, and developing a Medicare program to assist the elderly” (Troy). During his presidency, only half of the bills that Kennedy proposed were passed by Congress. Kennedy was assassinated in November of 1963.

 

     Kennedy’s replacement was his Vice President, Lyndon B. Johnson. After finishing out Kennedy’s term, Johnson ran for president and was elected. Perhaps the most respected part of Johnson’s presidency was the Great Society, which “included the declaration of a War on Poverty; the introduction of various laws aimed at improving education, Social Security, health care, and the environment; and the creation of Head Start, the Job Corps, and the National Endowment for the Arts and the Humanities” (Johnson). Johnson’s administration greatly increased the amount of US involvement in the Vietnam War, which was not received warmly by the American public. Many protests ensued from those who were against the war. Johnson did not run for a second term.

 

Law &  Justice- Carson

     The 1960s was a time of changing views on the government. Big crime trials were very publicized in the 1960s, especially the cases of Richard Hickock and Perry Smith "In Cold Blood" murders, the Charles Manson case, and the trial of the Chicago Seven. This was just 15 years after the end of WWII, and the sense of obedience is still imbedded in American minds. This mindset carried over into their thoughts about law and justice too.  There was a strong social consensus about what was right and what was wrong. So strong that even people who committed horrible crimes acknowledged that they had done the wrong thing. In the early 1960s media attention was focused on the Richard Hickock and Perry Smith trials. Even though the acts for which they were tried and found guilty violated the deepest moral standards of American society, neither Hickock nor Smith challenged those standards. There was no sense that either felt that what they had done was justified. They, and everyone else in America, could agree that the crimes for which they were eventually executed were morally wrong. In 1969 the media focused again in a shocking murder case. Five people, including a young movie actress named Sharon Tate (she was 8 months pregnant), were murdered by Charles Manson, a drifter and convict. The difference between this case and other previous crime trials of the decade was that Charles Manson was proud of his actions and did not think that what he had done was morally wrong. This shocked the American people, who were still in the strict mindset of obedience. Nevertheless, Congress and the courts were finalizing the political revolution that had started in the 1930s under the Roosevelt administration, known as the new deal. The new deal had been finalized and helped to expand individual rights of Americans. The decade was haunted with the awful deaths of a number of major political leaders, such as, the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, which threw the nation into a state of depression and worry. Also, the killings of other national leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., Robert Kennedy, and Malcolm X shook the American people. Controversies and crises surrounding the cold war with the Soviet Union, the escalating Civil Rights movement, and the rise of a possible war in Vietnam continued to concern the public. 

 

                                                             

 

 

Religion- Jenna

     During the 1960's religion was very similar to what it had been. In the United States, Roman Catholic was the major religion. A new change however, came with more rights for the African-American people of the United States. With the anti-segregation movements came movements involving religious freedoms.

     

     Martin Luther King was one of these religious movement leaders. He was a very prominent religious and anti-racist figure in the 1960’s. In 1963, MLK participated in the March on Washington, and gave his most famous speech. The year after, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. His goal was equal rights for black people in every aspect, including religious rights. Another religious figure in the 1960’s was Malcom X. He was a black Muslim leader. In 1963, he was suspended and later expelled from the Nation of Islam for some of his comments. In 1965, he was assassinated.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

Positive Political Cartoon

 

 

"Kindly move over a little, gentlemen"


 

This political cartoon from 1965 shows shows what the LBJ administration was spending money on. 

"The other ascent into the unknown"

 

This political cartoon from 1965 portrays how little the US understood about the Vietnam War before they became involved.

The soldier is walking into a very clouded, foggy area, not knowing what to expect.

      URL: http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/ascent.html

 

 

MYP Unit Question: How did culture, events and leadership shape and reflect post-WWII America?

 

     Many things have affected the post-World War II America we know today; things including culture, events, and leadership. Throughout history, these things have created what we know of as post-World War II. Everything we believe, all the laws, amendments, technology, style, etc, all exist because of the basic pre-WWII decades beginning with the 1940s and until the 1990s. From the attack on Pearl Harbor to lethal school shootings, the United States history is laced in today’s news, culture, events and leadership. The way of life, striving, and interacting is all affected and directly varied by correlating history in the United States.

 

            Food and Drinks in the 50s were boring and conservative; this opened a door for the 1960s chefs and mothers to create a whole new menu of meal possibilities. Instead of casseroles, loaves, and grilled meats, food was transformed into flashy and risky dishes; many of the diches created in the 60s are still made and are eaten daily.

 

            Daily life, too, was influenced by previous years and influenced years after. The 60s opened up new possibilities for women, homosexuals, and African Americans; they received Civil Rights, including the right to vote.

 

            The Government and Politics of 1960 began with John F Kennedy and President Nixon, and ended with President Dwight Eisenhower. They all had their share of handling the pre-Vietnam War, the war itself, and post-Vietnam. The way that they and the congress handled the entire situation has set precedents for government and politics in America ever since.

 

            A major event that took place during the 1960's was the religious anti-segregation movement. This affected the post WWII America, because now America is a place of equal rights for all.

 

            Business growth by certain companies has given way to newer companies, and set the standard way to do things. For example, IBM was a huge company back in the 60's. Now, Microsoft has taken over, but this competition has been good for that industry.

New movies and the movie industry itself became very popular during the 1960's. This industry kept growing, and became a huge past time today. People love to go to the movies now, just like they did back then. 

 

            1960s fashion was all about pushing boundaries and testing limits. Jacqueline Kennedy had set a standard in the early 1960s, but throughout the decade focus shifted to the “hippie” style, promoting freedom and equality for all. The sense of openness came from the feeling of power that spread throughout the country after WWII.

 

            Literature in the 1960s was bursting with creativity and culture. Science fiction novels became popular, but the main question in 1960s literature came from young writers questioning he values of adults. These ideas were reflected throughout many works of art that are still popular today, such as Catcher in the Rye. Also, many new magazines debuted in the ‘60s focusing on a new market: teenagers. Literature in the 1960s was very defining.

 

            Law and justice were very important topics in the ‘60s. the country was still filled with the sense of obedience left over from WWII and the Vietnam war. People knew that violence was morally wrong and wanted to keep that notion in the minds of all Americans. That is why many murder trials and scandals got so much of the media’s attention. It is very clear that feelings of post- war America was still fresh in the minds of all citizens.

 

             The changes made in American education, such as including facts about the oppression of blacks, showed that America was willing to take responsibility for some of its mistakes. Also, federal funding began, giving schools more money and more opportunities.

In the sports world during the 1960s baseball was being forced to create room for other up-and-coming sports that were gaining popularity, such as football, NASCAR, and basketball. Muhammad Ali caused a controversy by voicing his opinion on the war in Vietnam. This was significant not only because he was a well-known sports figure, but also because he is African American. 

The 1960s was a time where many people expressed themselves through music. Artists such as Jimi Hendrix and the Beatles dominated the music world and Woodstock took place, allowing people to let loose and live vicariously through the music they listened to. 

There are many different opinions about the tasks accomplished by the leaders of this decade, primarily John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. While Kennedy attempted to create a better America through what he called the “New Frontier,” Johnson greatly increased our involvement in the Vietnam War, which many Americans were against.

 

            As we know, there are many aspects to a post-war America, and we know that these aspects extend into decades past the end of the war. The decades following WWII have created a post- war America, which has shaped our entire country, from our leadership styles, to our culture, and even to our country’s interests. America as we know it has been shaped by post- war feelings, ideas, and mindsets. It has become our way of life, and it was basically created what the United States is known as in the world today.

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

"Hippies and their Music: Woodstock." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.

 

Henderson, David. "Hendrix, Jimi." Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. Ed. Colin A. Palmer. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 1038-1040. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.

 

"The Beatles." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 89-92. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.

 

"The 1960s Education: Overview." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 48-49. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"The 1960s Education: Topics in the News." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 52-65. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"The 1960s Sports: Overview." UXL American Decades. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: UXL, 2003. 166-167. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"1960s: Sports and Games." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 4: 1960s-1970s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 877-878. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"Ali, Muhammad (USA)." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 73-74. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

Troy, Gil. "New Frontier." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 6. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 55. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"Kennedy, John F." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 253-255. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"Johnson, Lyndon B." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 209-210. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 6 June 2010.

 

"The 1960s: Business and the Economy: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.    

 

"The Boom on Wall Street." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010. 

 

"Franchising." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.  

 

"IBM and the Computer Industry." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.   

 

"The 1960s: The Arts: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.   

 

"King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1929-1968." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.    

 

"Malcolm, X 1919-1965." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.    

 

"1960s: Print Culture." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 4: 1960s-1970s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 865-866. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 May 2010.

 

"The 1960s: Fashion: Overview." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, Victor Bondi, Richard Layman, Tandy McConnell, and Vincent Tompkins. Vol. 7: 1960-1969. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. INTERNATIONALACADEMYHIGH SCHOOL. 7 June 2010 

 

"1960s: The Way We Lived." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 4: 1960s-1970s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 921-922. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 June 2010.

 

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Bugles. "Bugles from the 60s." Bugles. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 June 2010. <http://wesclark.com/am/bugles.jpg>.

 

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